Category Archives: Campus Activism

Open Letter to the Australian Senate regarding a proposed bill to ban the import of primates

The following letter has been sent to the Committee Secretary of the Senate Standing Committees on Environment and Communications regarding the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Amendment (Prohibition of Live Imports of Primates for Research) Bill 2015. This proposed bill would ban the Australian research community from importing primates for use in biomedical research. The following is a segment of the proposed amendment:

Australian Bill

We encourage the scientific community to leave comments of support for our letter in the comment section below.

Dear Committee Secretary,

Nonhuman primate research has played an important role in many medical breakthroughs, from the polio vaccine to the development of life support systems for premature babies.

Studies with nonhuman primates are a small fraction of basic, behavioural, and biomedical research; however, they are critical to scientific research that seeks to address health issues of grave concern to the public. Nonhuman primate research includes studies relevant to understanding, preventing, and treating a range of diseases including, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, stroke, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, anaemia and a multitude of mental health conditions.

Thanks to research on primates:

  • Polio has been eradicated from Australia, saving tens of thousands of children from crippling disability
  • Thousands of Australians have had Deep Brain Stimulation to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson’s
  • Over 20,000 HIV positive Australians can live a relatively normal life thanks to the development of antiretrovirals
  • Australian children can be vaccinated against Hepatitis B, diphtheria, measles, mumps and rubella

Measures to constrain nonhuman primate research in Australia puts future medical breakthroughs in jeopardy.

Australian law already bans the use of wild caught nonhuman primates for research (as does the EU). Such laws should continue to be actively enforced to uphold animal welfare standards, but importantly, should not be expanded to prevent important nonhuman primate research being conducted.

Preventing researchers from importing nonhuman primates could prevent scientists from responding to public health issues or new areas of biomedical research in Australia and beyond. The domestic supply of nonhuman primates may be able to provide for most of the needs of the scientific community, but also risks constraining it. Any future Australian research would be limited to species of monkeys currently bred in Australia’s three breeding colonies, effectively restricting the animal models available to the biomedical community.

Research conducted with nonhuman primates is strictly regulated. All research must be approved by Animal Ethics Committees, who apply the 3 Rs framework to ensure that animal studies are Replaced wherever there is a non-animal alternative, Refined to ensure animal suffering is minimised, and Reduced to ensure that as few animals are used as is necessary to produce scientifically viable results. Animal welfare remains a high priority for the scientific community – with animal care personnel and veterinary staff providing round-the-clock care for their wards.

Yours faithfully,

Speaking of Research

Inês Albuquerque
Jeremy Bailoo, Ph.D
Prof Mark G Baxter
Prof Allyson Bennett
Paul Browne, Ph.D
James Champion
Paula Clifford
Amanda M. Dettmer, Ph.D
Prof Doris Doudet
Jazzminn Hembree RLATG
Tom Holder
Prof J. David Jentsch
Juan Carlos Marvizon, Ph.D
Kimberley Phillips Ph.D
Prof Dario Ringach
Simon R Schultz, DPhil

Background Briefing on Animal Research in Germany

Speaking of Research have now added a fourth background briefing on animal research to our list. We now have a German background briefing – in both English and German – to add to our briefings on the US, UK and Canada. We hope this briefing will offer journalists, politicians and the public a short, handy overview of the key facts. Our two-page summary provides information including the number of animals used for research purposes, the laws and regulations surrounding animal research, and some key questions people have.

Download our background briefing on animal research in Germany [or in German]

As with our previous briefings, we encourage those working in universities, pharmaceuticals, and other research institutions, to help share this document when contacting or responding to journalists about research stories relating to their institution. By attaching this background briefing to proactive stories, or reactive statements, it can help ensure that your research is understood within the context of the wider research environment.

We would like to thank Pro-Test Deutschland – particularly Renee Hartig, Florian Dehmelt and Jennifer Smuda – for their help in gathering information on the German legislation, and for translating the German-language version of the document.

The latest version of all our briefings can be found on both the Multimedia resources page, and in the menu system under Facts->Animal Research Briefings.

See a sample of the briefing below:

Briefing note on animal research in Germany

We permit anyone to redistribute this briefing providing it remain unchanged, and in whole, with credit to Speaking of Research.

We would also like to thank the Science Media Centre (in the UK), who’s “Briefing Notes on the Use of Animals in Research” provided the inspiration for our own.

Speaking of Research

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5 Minutes with an Animal Care Facility Coordinator

Richard Marble, an Animal Care Facility Coordinator at Ferris State University, is a dedicated and experienced Animal Technologist who takes his responsibility of caring for the animals in his care seriously.  Following a guest post (It’s All About the Animals) in which Richard wrote giving insight into what is it like being an animal facility manager, he agreed to do an interview with Speaking of Research member, Jazzminn Hembree.

Richard opened up about his responsibilities in caring for animal welfare, and how he oversees all activities taking place within the facility as he seeks to improve animal welfare.  Many improvements have occurred during his time in the field, such as changes in housing and environmental enrichment. Richard explains

Research is like an enigma. Even those of us in the field do not like utilizing animals for research, but until such time as they are no longer necessary- the passionate people in this field are going to go out of their way to give them the best life they can.

Watch the video as he discusses:

  • How he is responsible for Animal Welfare?
  • What improvements he has seen in animal welfare over the past 15 years?
  • How he factors the 3R’s (Reduce, Refine, Replace) into his daily activities?
  • How he thinks animal welfare will improve in the future?

Why People Are Wrong to Oppose the New UK Beagle Breeding Facility

This post was originally posted on Huffington Post UK’s website. It is reprinted with permission from both the author and the Huffington Post. The original hyperlinks which were stripped out of the HP article have been returned.

Where do medicines come from?

It’s not a question most of us bother with when we take advantage of the huge array of medical treatments available to us.

All modern medicine is built on the ‘basic research’ which allows us to understand our physiology, and the diseases we suffer. Much of this research has been done, and continues to be done, in animals. Had Mering and Minkowski not shown the causal link between the pancreas and diabetes in dogs, we might never have discovered insulin (much more work was conducted in dogs by Banting and Best who later won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin). Had Pasteur not shown how dogs could be vaccinated using weakened samples of the virus (made from rabbits), we would not have both the veterinary and human rabies vaccines.

Animals are also used to develop and refine medical techniques. Dogs played a key role in perfecting artery to vein blood transfusions, as well as showing that citrated blood could be safely transplanted (thus preventing the blood from clotting). More recently, 23 pet dogs with paralysing spinal injuries were able to regain some use of their rear legs thanks to a novel stem cell transplant treatment. This research had originally been done in rats, and last year was used to successfully treat a paralysed man in what could prove to be one of the biggest medical advances of the decade.

By law, animals must also be used to test the toxicity and safety of new drug compounds before they can be given to human volunteers. A pharmaceutical company will have used the findings of basic research studies to identify types of drugs which might be effective against certain diseases. They will then use a variety of non-animal tests – computer modelling, cell cultures and more – to identify the most promising drug candidates. Those compounds will then be tested in animals. If they are deemed safe enough, they may then be moved forward to human trials. It is testament to the effectiveness of animal safety tests that nobody has died in Phase I clinical trials in the UK for over 30 years (with only one badly conducted clinical trial causing severe harm in recent times).

Given public misconceptions on the issue, it is worth being clear and saying that in the UK, and across the rest of the EU, it is illegal to use animals to test cosmetic products or their ingredients. The UK ban came into force in 1998, one year after a ban on tobacco research using animals. The Government has also announced a ban on using animals for testing household products.

Graph - Milestones in Animal Research

So what about dogs?

Laboratory DogsDespite the examples used in this article, dogs are not used that much in research in the UK. They account for less than 0.1% of all animals used in the UK each year. This compares to the 98% of procedures which are conducted on mice, rats, fish or birds. In 2013 there were 3,554 dogs used in 4,779 procedures (down 30% from a decade ago). Due to special protections that exist for dogs, cats, primates and horses, researchers must justify to the Home Office why another species, such as a mouse, fish or sheep, cannot be used instead of a dog. The research must be approved by an ethical review board, who will work to ensure the implementation of the 3Rs (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of animals in research). The researcher, the institution and the individual procedure must each be licensed by the Home Office. The video below, produced by Understanding Animal Research, shows dogs in a typical pharmaceutical laboratory in the UK.

So why a breeding facility?

Currently, around 20% of the dogs used in research in the UK are imported from abroad (those involved in 956 of the 4,779 procedures in 2013). This is because the UK breeding facilities cannot provide all the dogs used in the UK. These dogs have to endure long and potentially stressful flights from other countries. Surely it is better to breed them here in the UK, where we have some of the highest standards of laboratory animal welfare in the world and where our facilities can be easily monitored by the Animals in Science Regulation Unit inspectors? The new breeding facility offers animal welfare standards above and beyond those demanded by the Government. Dogs will be kept in socially housed groups in multi-level pens which can be joined together to create larger runs for the animals. All the animals will have toys and enrichment in their enclosures, and will interact with trained laboratory technicians every day. It is this sort of investment in animal welfare we, as an animal-loving nation, should embrace.

Petitioning the Government to reverse their decision on approving the beagle facility in Hull is misguided. It will not reverse our need to use animals in research, or even change the number of dogs used in the UK. What it will do is force another generation of puppies to take long flights from other countries, having been bred in older breeding facilities away from the UK inspectorate.

Animal research may not be something we want to think about when we take our medicines – but it is something necessary for those medicines to exist. Instead of trying to ban animal research, let’s instead make sure that if we do it, we do it to world-class standards.

Tom Holder

Director of Speaking of Research

Pro-Test Deutschland: Standing up for science in Germany!

Today we welcome the launch a brand new science advocacy organization, and a new member of the Speaking of Research Family, Pro-Test Deutschland!

Pro-Test_Deutschland_image

Pro-Test Deutschland is a grassroots science organization founded by 18 young scientists and supporters of medical progress in the German university town of Tübingen.

The need for such a grassroots campaign in Germany has never been greater, as over the past few years the rhetoric of animal rights activists in Germany has been getting steadily more extreme. This culminated last month with the announcement by Professor Nikos Logothetis, a leading neuroscientist at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, that he would be ending his research with non-human primates. His decision followed a series of false allegations by animal rights activists, and a campaign of vilification and intimidation against him, his family and his colleagues.

A lot can change in a month. Within days of Prof. Logothetis announcement over 4,000 scientists in Germany and beyond had signed a motion in solidarity with him and his colleagues, and the Max Planck Society issued a strong statement of support. The events in Tübingen spurred the wider European scientific community to take a strong public stance on the necessity of animal research, and its intervention played an important role in yesterday’s decision by the European Commission to reject the Stop Vivisection Initiative.

The launch of Pro-Test Deutschland comes at a critical time for science in Germany, and indeed in the EU as a whole, and we look forward to working with our new friends to support animal research that is so crucial to advancing science and medicine.

Below is the text of a press release that Pro-Test Deutschland issued yesterday to announce their launch. They have also issued an invitation letter to anyone who would like to get involved with details on how to get in touch.

Press Release June 3rd, 2015

Pro-Test Germany, a supplier of reliable information and advocate for animal testing in research

Tübingen, June 3, 2015

Pro-Test Germany is an initiative intended to lend a voice to science. Its primary goal is to educate the public on scientific, ethical, legal, social and psychological aspects of animal research. In addition, Pro-Test Germany will provide reliable information to help those better understand the role of animals in research and the benefits to society.

Today the European Commission decided that the 2 010/63/EU directive for the protection of research animals will not be affected by zealous antivivisectionists. This is good news for animal welfare. And it is good news for our society as a whole, as this decision issues a clear vote for science and research in the EU.

The often one sided campaign led by animal research opponents has recently left a huge impression on Tübingen, Germany. For one instance, the renowned neuroscientist Nikos Logothetis had decided to withdraw from his primate research to escape ongoing threats and harassment. Until now there has been very little public support for this research, especially from the scientific community, even Logothetis lamented a lack of support in his decision letter.

A powerful voice in the public debate is largely absent. Where have the scientists been during these one sided discussions? Scientists, whom are the most familiar with this research, are largely afraid to speak out because of the potential hostility or because they may not be understood or able to convey a message that the public understands. Not all scientists are adept at speaking out about their research; however, Pro-Test Deutschland aims to educate and provide a secure platform for scientists to speak and the community to get involved.

The view that animal testing in research is not only ethical but also necessary may be widespread, but it is rarely openly professed. For many people outside of science, it is also often difficult to obtain reliable information, such as reports on the outcomes of animal research and their public benefit. This fundamental problem has been acknowledged by young scientists in Tübingen. So by now, it is time to release Pro-Test Germany, an advocacy group for animal research and a voice lent to science. The founders of Pro-Test Germany believe that animal testing in research is ethically and scientifically necessary. All the while supporting a broad societal discussion based on information and literature that ranges through all sides of the story. Thus, to promote an informed and fair debate, Pro-Test Germany will provide a point of contact for all those who want to learn about the role of animals in science.

Pro-Test Germany is initially aimed at building a website that collects data, facts and personal testimonies concerning animal research and its final outcomes. The homepage at http://www.protestgermany.org is going live tonight on June 3, 2015. Additionally, a social media campaign has already begun on Facebook and Twitter. In due course, further activities will also be tackled, such as informational events, lecture series, open letters, rallies etc. The objective is to push Pro-Test Deutschland as far past the Swabian university city limits as possible.

Website: www.pro-test-deutschland.de
FaceBook: https://www.facebook.com/protestdeutschland
Twitter: @ProTestDE

Pro-Test Deutschland_logo

Animal research openness in action – from Cambridge to Florida

Last week we published an article calling on all involved in animal research to speak up for science as animal rights activists held their annual World Week for Animals in Laboratories (WWAIL), writing:

This year, if your university or facility is among those that attract attention during WWAIL, we ask that you join in the conversation by providing protestors, public, and media your own voice.  Whether it is via banners, websites, or talking with reporters– speak up for science and for public interests in advancing scientific understanding and medical progress. Although it may not matter to those committed to an absolutist agenda, it can matter to those who are interested in building a dialogue based in fact and serious consideration of the complex issues that surround public interests in the future of science, health, and medicine.”

The past few days have seen several great examples of just the sort of engagement with the public that we had in mind, including videos form two top universities in the UK that take viewers inside their animal research facilities.

The first comes from the University of Cambridge, who have published a video entitled “Fighting cancer: Animal research at Cambridge”, which focuses on how animals used in research are cared for and how the University implements the principles of the 3Rs. It includes interviews with Professor Gerard Evans of the Department of Biochemistry, who uses mice in studies of lung and pancreatic cancers, and Dr Meritxell Hutch of the Gurdon Institute, who has developed 3D liver cell culture models that she uses to reduce the number of mice required for her studies of tissue repair and regeneration, as well as with members of staff as they care for the animals.

The second example is another video, this time from Imperial College London, which also show how research staff care for the animals used in research, and features an interview with Professor of Rheumatology Matthew Pickering, who studies the role of complement proteins in liver damage in mice.

For the third example we cross the Atlantic to South Florida, where animal rights activists are trying to close down several facilities in Hendry County  that are breeding monkeys for medical research, a service that is hugely important to biomedical research. One of the companies being targeted by the animal rights campaigns is Primate Products, so we were delighted to see Dr. Jeff Rowell, a veterinarian and President of Primate Products, speak up about the vital work they do in an interview with journalist Amy Williams of local news outlet News-Press.com.

Primate products

During the interview Dr. Rowell discusses how the work of Primate Products is misrepresented by dishonest animal rights campaigns, including the inaccurate and malicious allegations made by the group Stop Animal Exploitation Now (SAEN) in 2010. As we discussed in a post at the time, these allegations were based on the deliberate misrepresentation of photos taken during veterinary care of injuries several macaques received in fighting with other macaques when housed in social groups (a normal though infrequent behaviour in the species in the wild and in captivity).

The News-Press.com article also shows that there is still a lot of work to be done to improve openness in animal research, as the three other companies that are breeding monkeys for research in Hendry County refused to speak with the Amy Williams, a shame considering that it was their decision to base themselves in the county that triggered the current animal rights campaign. While they are justifiably nervous of speaking with the press (some journalists and publications are arguably beyond redemption) the truth is that the “No comment” approach works for no-one apart from those who oppose animal research. In speaking at length with Amy Williams, Jeff Rowell has provided an excellent example that his colleagues in Hendry County would do well to follow.

The initiatives we have seen from the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, and Primate Products over the past few days are extremely welcome, and we applaud them for their efforts. Nonetheless, we acknowledge that the future of medical science will never really be secure until they are the norm rather than the exception.

Before we conclude, it’s worth noting that it’s not just in the US and UK that researchers are beginning to realise the importance of openness in animal research to counter misleading antivivisectionist propaganda. In Italy Prof. Roberto Caminiti, a leading neurophysiologist at the University La Sapienza in Rome whose work is currently being targeted by animal rights activists, was interviewed recently for an excellent video produced by Pro-Test Italia, in which he discusses his primate research and how it is regulated.

Speaking of Research

Animal Research and the 2015 UK General Election

On May 7th 2015 the British voters will flood to the polls to determine the next Government (which for the second time in a row is likely to be a coalition). The political landscape has changed a lot since the 2010 election resulted in a Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition, with the rise of several smaller parties including the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) and the Scottish National Party (SNP). The negotiation process of forming a coalition will mean that smaller parties can make demands on the largest parties (Conservatives and Labour) to secure a coalition agreement.

In the last week the parties have released their manifestos, outlining what they promise to do over the next five years if they are elected into Government. Many of the manifestos have specific pledges relating to the use of animals in medical and scientific research (which is supported by around two-thirds of the British population).

Nature and the Guardian have analysis of what the parties and their  manifestos say about science in general, so this article will concentrate on policies specific to regulation of animal research.

UK General Election 2015

The Conservatives Conservative animal research

The Conservatives (or “Tories”) are the larger of the two parties in the 2010-15 ruling Coalition. Their manifesto’s only mention of animal research says:

“We will encourage other countries to follow the EU’s lead in banning animal testing for cosmetics and work to accelerate the global development and take-up of alternatives to animal testing where appropriate.”

This fits the business-focused Conservative messages. The Coalition Government’s 2014 Delivery Plan on “Working to reduce the use of animals in scientific research“, which called for the UK to “develop an international strategy towards the eventual eradication of unnecessary animal testing of cosmetics products, adopting a science-led approach” (2.2.3).

The Labour Party Labour animal testing

Labour is the second largest party in British politics, currently neck and neck with the Conservatives. Their manifesto mentions hunting, protecting dogs and cats, and defending the UK ban on hunting with dogs, but does not mention animal research explicitly anywhere. Separately, Labour released a manifesto called “Protecting Animals“, signed by the Labour leader which expands on the main manifesto, but similarly lacks any specifics on animal research.

During their previous term in government, which ended in 2010, Labour established the National Centre for the 3Rs, and implemented legislation to stop campaigns of harassment and intimidation against scientists by animal rights extremists.

The Liberal DemocratsLiberal Democrats animal experiments

Traditionally third party in British politics, the Liberal Democrats (or “Lib Dems”) were in Coalition with the Conservatives during 2010-15. The last two Home Office ministers in charge of animal research – Lynne Featherstone and Norman Baker, have both been from the party. Their manifesto states (p82):

“Liberal Democrats believe in the highest standards of animal welfare. We will review the rules surrounding the sale of pets to ensure they promote responsible breeding and sales and minimise the use of animals in scientific experimentation, including by funding research into alternatives. We remain committed to the three Rs of humane animal research: Replace, Reduce, Refine.”

Under the 2010-15 Coalition, funding for the National Centre for the 3Rs rose from £5.3 million to over £8 million. The manifesto also uses the word “minimise” rather than “reduce”, so as not to focus on baseline figures, but on the 3Rs – preventing a repeat of confusion over terminology surrounding early Coalition pledges.

The Scottish National PartySNP animal studies

Buoyed by the Scottish Independence Referendum, the Scottish National Party (SNP) look to be mopping up almost all the Scottish seats in (the Westminster) Parliament, and will likely become the third largest party. Their manifesto promises “further animal welfare measures” but does not specifically mention animal research. They separately promise to increase funding for Motor Neurone Disease, which would likely involve animal studies.

While no other party is likely to reach over 10 seats in parliament (of 650 seats), the following parties are still worth mentioning (of these, only the Democratic Unionist Party (in Northern Ireland) is likely to get over 5 seats).

United Kingdom Independence PartyUKIP animal testing cosmetics

UKIP are a relatively new party at the far right of the British political spectrum. While their polling suggests them getting around 10-15% of the vote, they are unlikely to get more than 3 seats in parliament. Their anti-EU platform means they believe that the UK “can only regain control of animal health and welfare by leaving the EU”. Their manifesto calls for:

  • “Keep the ban on animal testing for cosmetics;
  • Challenge companies using animals for testing drugs or other medical treatments on the necessity for this form of testing, as opposed to the use of alternative technology;
  • Tightly regulate animal testing.”

It would appear that UKIP are trying to put in place the existing UK regulatory system. As Chris Magee, from Understanding Animal Research, says:

“these aren’t bad policies – but we know this because they have been working effectively for at least the last 29 years.”

The Green PartyGreen party ban animal experiments

The Green Party have recently surged in British politics, but are unlikely to make gains beyond the single seat they currently hold.

Their manifesto reads like it was written by the animal rights group, the BUAV:

  • “Stop non-medical experiments, experiments using primates, cats and dogs. End the use of live animals in military training.
  • Stop the breeding and use of genetically altered animals.
  • End government funding of animal experimentation, including any that is outsourced to other countries.
  • Provide greater funding for non-animal research methods and link funding to a target for developing of humane alternatives to animal experiments.
  • Increase transparency and ensure publication of all findings of animal research, including negative findings.
  • Introduce a comprehensive system for reviewing animal experiments and initiate a comparison of currently required animal tests with a set of human-biology based tests.”

Four of these pledges have analogues among the BUAV pledges, and it would similarly result in the end of over 80% of animal experiments in the UK. Quite simply, this policy is a disaster for human and animal health. Interestingly, both the leader of the Green Party (Natalie Bennett), and their only MP (Caroline Lucas), have both signed the BUAV’s pledges.

Plaid Cymru 

This party will be contesting all forty parliamentary seats in Wales. They are likely to come out with up to five of them (they currently have three). Their manifesto pledges:

“[T]he introduction of a European-level Animal Welfare Commissioner and adoption at all government levels of the new and comprehensive Animal Welfare law to end animal cruelty.”

The Democratic Unionist Party

Contesting seats in Northern Ireland, and likely to win 5 – 10 seats (currently holding 8), their manifesto does not mention animal research but says:

“[We want] a UK wide charter for animal protection.”

Some predictions (from April 22nd) on the number of seats parties will win. 326 seats are needed for a majority

Some predictions (from April 22nd) on the number of seats parties will win. 326 seats are needed for a majority

Animal Rights Election Activism

There are also various animal activist groups which are working to convince parliamentary candidates (PPCs) to put in place new regulations for conducting animal studies. Those that have contacted candidates include:

The National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) are focusing on household product animal tests (which will be banned from October 2015), and reforming Section 24 (which is already underway).

The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) are running their “Vote Cruelty Free” campaign, which asks candidates to make six pledges which would effectively destroy British medical and veterinary research. These include bans on GM animals, on “non-medical research” and on the use of cats an dogs.

Animal Aid are calling for an end to all taxpayer money used to fund research involving animals – thereby denying the National Health Service of many future treatments.

Speaking of Research