Human mRNA vaccine trials in the 2010s? A history lesson in animal research

The recent mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are the first of their kind, but they weren’t created overnight. RNA itself was discovered in the 1960s. Then, basic research in the 1970s paved the way for vaccine development in the 90s, optimization in the 2000s, clinical trials for influenza and rabies in the late 2010s