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Animal Research in South Korea in 2016

In February 2017 the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA) of South Korea released its animal research numbers for 2016. We spoke to the Animal Protection & Welfare Division and have been able to get a translated copy of these figures. The tables below were produced by the APQA, and we thank Dr Lee for providing these figures.

In 2016, South Korea used 2,878,907 animals in research, up 14.8% from the previous year.

Animal research in South Korea for 2016 by species

Rodents, fish and birds accounted for over 97% of animals used in research – similar to figures found in Europe. Most of the rise in animal experiments came from an increase in rodents (+19.5%), though numbers for fish (+15.2%) and birds (+60.7%) also contributed. There were falls in several categories, including primate experiments, which fell 18.8%.

Severity of animal experiments in South Korea

South Korea also produced severity statistics, similar to those in Europe. 2.6% of research showed no harm to the animal, 28.4% was mild, 35.5% was moderate and was 33.4% severe.We are unclear if these categorizations are based on pre-experiment licenses (what the researcher believed the severity would be) or post-experiment evaluation (what the researcher saw the severity to be).

Trends in South Korean animal experiments 2008-2016

The number of animals used in research has risen sharply over the last nine years, up 279% over the period, rising at a fairly steady rate of over 250,000 animals per year. To see why, take a look at a graph, produced by Nature, on the growth of R&D in South Korea over the same period.

The huge rise in spending on basic and applied research means that animal experiments were likely to rise (and did) over the same period. In 2013, South Korea had more researchers per thousand people in employment (12.84) than Japan (10.19), the USA  (8.81) or Germany (8.54). Medical and health sciences were the largest discipline (by publications) in South Korea (see Nature article).

If you know of any animal research statistics not on our list, please contact us.

Research Roundup: A new approach to treating Parkinson’s, designer pig organs, the benefits of dragon blood, and more!

Welcome to this week’s Research Roundup. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • Scientists may have discovered a new way to treat Parkinson’s disease (PD), a devastating neurological disease that causes tremors, rigid muscles, and changes in speech. In PD, a person’s brain cells (neurons) die causing a reduction in the neurotransmitter, dopamine. Researchers in Sweden were able to reprogram human astrocytes – brain cells that normally support the functions of neurons – to behave more like dopamine producing neurons. They did this by bathing the astrocytes in a petri dish in a number of molecules that affect changes in the cell’s DNA. This proof of concept allowed researchers to take the next step and try this therapy in a mouse model of PD. Injecting the same cocktail of molecules into the brains of PD mice caused the astrocytes to become more like the dopamine producing neurons, and this change lessened the PD symptoms in the mice. Obviously, many more studies are needed before this potential therapy can be tried in human patients with PD, but this is an exciting advancement in our quest to treat this disease. This research was published in Nature Biotechnology.
animal testing, animal research, vivisection, animal experiment

Mice were key to this Parkinson’s breakthrough

  • A new study finds that a reovirus may be implicated in the development of celiac disease. Celiac disease is a serious autoimmune disease where the ingestion of gluten, leads to damage of the small intestine. Gluten is found in many common foods, and is the general name for wheat derived proteins. “It affects 1 in 100 people worldwide, and 2.5 million Americans are undiagnosed and are at risk for long-term health complications”. Mice, were infected orally with two derived forms of a human reovirus, T1L and T3D; both capable of infecting the hosts` intestine but affecting its functioning in different ways. They found that while mice were able to successfully clear the virus from the system; exposure to the virus can disrupt intestinal homeostasis, lead to a loss of oral tolerance to the antigens produced by the body, and promote immunopathology similar to the symptoms of celiac disease. This study will of course need to replicated and further research investigating other reoviruses and the subsequent link to the development of celiac diseases firmly established. This study, using mice, does however, provide hope for the millions of individuals suffering from celiac disease and if a strong link to reoviruses is established; can lead to the development of a vaccination. The research was published in Science.
  • A promising vaccination for Zika virus has been found, reducing the occurrence of congenital abnormalities in mice. Zika virus is an emergent global health threat, that is transmitted by mosquito bites and more recently it has been discovered that it can be passed on via sex with an infected person. The most debilitating effects of the virus are death in the young and elderly are with compromised immune systems and perhaps most strikingly birth defects — in particular, microcephaly; a sign of incomplete brain development. For the first time, these researchers tested a live attenuated version of the Zika virus in mice. In comparison to an inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccinations have the advantage of single-dose immunization, rapid and robust immune response, and potentially long-lived protection. They found that this live attenuated vaccination was able to confer sterilizing immunity (complete protection from infection), a robust T-cell immune response, and a promising safety profile; similar to that of other clinically approved vaccinations. This study was published in Nature Medicine.

Illustration of a baby with microcephaly (left) compared to a baby with a typical head size

  • A new study finds that the human body’s peripheral nervous system could be capable of interpreting its environment and modulating pain. The sensation and perception of pain has historically been associated with the brain and the spinal cord (central nervous system(CNS)) and drugs for pain target the CNS. However, these drugs sometimes lead to unintended side effects such as addiction and tolerance. Drugs which target the peripheral system may allows us to avoid these unintended side effects. Using mice, these researchers demonstrated that the peripheral nervous system was able to interpret the type of stimulation it was sensing, although further research is needed to figure out how these sensations are interpreted by the brain. While further replication and validation is needed, this study widens our view of pain, its sensation and potential means of treatment. This study was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

  • Luhan Yang, Chief Scientific Officer at eGenesis, is working to create ‘designer pigs’ which could be used to help alleviate the organ crisis. By inserting up to 12 human genes into pig ova they hope to overcome the rejection problems which currently prevent xenotransplantation from providing viable organs for human use. Yang hopes the use of the gene-editing technique CRISPR will make it possible to create human-animal hybrid organs that can be used to save lives.

  • New study finds that variant of protein in komodo dragon blood (VK25) contains antimicrobials that may one day form the basis of a new antibiotic. Researchers at George Mason University synthesized a new molecule,DRGN-1, based on a peptide found in the blood of the Indonesian lizard. This molecule was shown to promote healing in mice with wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. This synthetic compound also made these bacteria cell membrane more permeable – making it easier to kill these bacteria. The research was published in Biofilms and Microbiomes

Research Roundup: Fighting antibiotic resistance with maple syrup, epigenetic effects from light and diet, and HPV vaccine success

Welcome to this week’s Research Roundup. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • New research finds that phenolic extract from maple syrup may boost antibiotic action. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise, with at least 2 million people becoming infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics each year. Producing antibiotics to fight these “superbugs” is proving to be extremely difficult with the first new antibiotic being discovered in thirty years occurring in 2016. Researchers, learning of the anti-cancer properties of maple syrup, decided to investigate its antimicrobial properties. By mixing the syrup’s phenolic compounds — which gives syrup its characteristic golden color with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and carbenicillin, they found the same antimicrobial effect with less than 90 percent of the antibiotic. They then tested the extract in fruit flies and moth larvae and found a similar effect. Further experiments are now planned in mice and the researchers are hopeful that one day this extract will be turned into a widely available, plant-based medicine.
  • Parental exposure to dim light at night may lead to a decreased immune response in offspring — Researchers at the Ohio State University exposed male and female adult hamsters to either a standard light/dark cycle or one with dim light at night for nine weeks. Offspring with parent(s) that experienced dim light exposure had an impaired immune response and decreased endocrine activity compared to offspring from standard light exposure parents. What is most interesting is that these epigenetic effects were transferred from the sperm and/or egg, and they were independent of light exposure in utero. The study suggests further research into light exposure at night from sources such as tablets, phones, and TVs should be done in humans.
  • A new study using mice finds that paternal diet affects offspring cognitive ability. Increasing evidence suggests that offspring development is not only impacted my maternal factors, such as the mother’s diet, but also by factors that the father has been exposed to. Epigenetic modification of germline cells has been implicated as one major causal pathway for the transmission of such changes to the offspring. In the present study, one group of male mice were fed a diet containing nutrients required for methyl group metabolism — methionine, folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and zinc, while another group was fed a standard diet of lab chow. After six weeks on the respective diets, the male mice were mated with female mice, and the offspring tested on a series of learning and memory tasks. The offspring of the male mice fed with methyl donors performed less well in all learning and memory tests. Related changes were also observed with poor activity in the hippocampus (associated with learning and memory) and downregulation of a gene associated with neuroplasticity. The study has implications for countries such as the USA, where dietary supplementation is prevalent.
animal testing, animal research, vivisection, animal experiment

Research mouse being held

  • A new function for the cerebellum has been found — the encoding of expectation of reward. The cerebellum accounts for approximately 10% of the brain volume, but contains more than 50% of its neurons. The cerebellum is often thought to function outside the realm of consciousness, being primarily involved in motor function and processing sensory input. The present study used genetically modified mice that expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and photon microscopy. Scientists trained mice to push a lever to obtain a sugared reward. They found that one set of cells in the cerebellum fired when the mice pushed the lever (motor response), another set fired when the mice were waiting for the reward to arrive (cognitive response in regard to expected event) and third group fired when the reward was removed entirely (cognitive response in regard to unexpected event). This study challenges the current way of thinking about the role of the cerebellum and highlights how more research is needed to further understand how structures within the brain function in an interconnected way.
  • Discovery of a gene related to congenital blindness in zebrafish may lead to a cure for similar disease in humans. One type of congenital blindness is termed Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LBA), and leads to deformed or absent rods and cones in the eyes of children — resulting in blindness. While researching blindness in zebrafish, scientist have manipulated genes associated with rods and cones, and discovered a mutant. These genetically mutated zebrafish also have degenerated cones in their eyes, similar to humans with LBA, but the rods are not affected. Future research investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of rod and cone development using this new animal model may lead to a possible cure in humans.

  • In the news, we sometimes hear stories about miracle drugs being created to save loved ones from debilitating diseases. Sometimes these drugs work, in part because of some previous validation in pre-clinical work using non-human animals. Other times, they result in devastating effects because they have not gone through appropriate safety trials. It is important that our readers and the public in general understand why clinical safety trials are important and have a proper understanding of the associated risks if they are not conducted.
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) has restarted animal experiments at its lab in Brussels. Work was temporarily suspended late last year after an undercover video was made by the animal rights group GAIA. The institution began both internal and external audits to assess its own processes, and they have taken various measures to further improve animal wellbeing, administration, and infrastructure – with a further €13.8m earmarked for a new animal facility in the future. The decision to restart means that 27 approved projects that were on hold can now begin.
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, provided free to girls in Scotland aged 12-13 years old has resulted in a 90% reduction in levels of the virus. HPV is believed to account for around 90% of cervical cancer cases. The HPV vaccine owes much of its development and subsequent efficacy testing to animal models, including rabbits (Shope papillomavirus), cows (Bovine papillomavirus) and dogs (Canine oral papilloma virus). It is forecast that the HPV vaccine will lead to a 90% drop in cervical cancer cases in Scotland.

Jeremy Bailoo and Justin Varholick

Slovakia releases 2016 animal research data

Slovakia has become the first EU country to report back on the number of animal procedures it conducted in 2016.

There were 12,855 procedures on animals in Slovakia in 2016, a 5% decline from 2015.

Animal research in Slovakia for 2016 by species [Click to Enlarge]

Rodents accounted for over 95% of research procedures in Slovakia. Less usual, was that there were more rats used than mice – though this was not true in 2015. No dogs were used in 2016 (34 procedures in 2015), and the number of procedures on cats fell from 29 to 11. The main changes were a 13% fall in procedures on mice, and a 59% rise in the use of rabbits.

Looking at the severity statistics, we can see 52% were mild or non-recovery, with 46% moderate (up from 27% in 2015) and 1.2% were severe (down from 2.0% in 2015).

Severity of animal experiments in Slovakia

Other facts found in the 2016 statistics:

  • The most common use of research animals was Basic Research (71.3%), followed by Regulatory use and Routine Production (23.4%), Maintenance of breeding colonies (3.1%) and Translational/Applied research (2.2%).
  • Within the basic research, common areas of study were the Nervous system (30%), Reproductive system (16%) and Immune system (14%).
  • 99.67% of the animals used were bred within the EU
  • No animals were re-used.
  • 7% were genetically modified and 93% were not

Slovakia: EU Statistical Data of all uses of animals, 2015
Slovakia: EU Statistical Data of all uses of animals, 2016

Speaking of Research

Research Roundup: Red blood cell production in the lungs, sea urchin spines to fix bones, and trying to reverse aging in mice

Welcome to our fourth weekly roundup (now called “Research Roundup”). These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • new study finds that most of our blood cells are made in the lungs, not bone marrow. Using genetically modified mice that expressed a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and photon microscopy, scientists were able to track blood platelets as they circulated around the body in real time. Surprisingly, they found a large population of megakaryocytes, responsible for the production of blood cells, in the lungs. This population of megakaryocytes was found to produce upwards of 10 million platelets per hour — at least half of the body’s total platelet production. Further experiments, found another population of megakaryocytes just outside the lung tissue — about 1 million per lung. Additionally, using mice with no stem cells in the bone marrow (eliminating blood cell production there), they found that cells from the lungs migrated to and facilitated blood cell production in the bone marrow. Because of technological advances in genetic engineering and microscopy, this study challenged a decades-old assumption, central to the field of biology and medicine. This study will of course need to be replicated and assessment performed of whether these findings generalize to humans.

  • Sea urchin spines can be used to fix bones, offering a much needed refinement to the second most performed transplant procedure, after blood. Current procedures involving transplants for bone defects lead to subsequent complications as, for example, when brittle synthetic compounds break, causing further inflammation. This study therefore investigated whether the rigid structure of sea urchin spines represent a superior alternative material to currently used products. Sea urchin spines were first soaked in sodium hypochlorite for 30 min, and then rinsed in deionized water at 200C for 2 days in order to remove organic material, converting the spine to magnesium-substituted tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) scaffolds, while maintaining the rigidity of the original open-cell structures. When testing the material on rabbits and beagles, they found that bone cells and nutrients could flow through the pores and promote bone formation. They also found that the scaffold degraded easily as it was replaced by the new growth.

Image Credit: Lei Cao et al

  • A new study found that a population of neurons in the striatum is implicated in the Pavlovian associative learning. Pavlovian conditioning is a cornerstone of Behavioral Psychology; although the implications for subsequent research investigating links to disorders such as addiction, compulsive behavior, and schizophrenia are probably understated. In the present study, researchers exposed mice to an odor — banana or lemon — followed by a reward of condensed milk. By repeatedly pairing the odor with the reward, mice learned that a certain odor predicted a particular reward. Similar to Pavlov’s earlier experiment, the anticipation of the reward upon presentation of odor also occurred — mice licked the air — analogous perhaps to how humans lick their lips in anticipation of, for example, ice-cream. To understand how the brain regulates this response, these researchers focused on the striatum as this area has previously been associated with reward and decision making. Using optogenetics and chemogenetics, the researchers “turned-off” a tiny group of cells that support the principal neurons in the striatum. Predictably, mice with these cells turned-off only licked the air in anticipation of milk only half as often compared to baseline levels. This difference was most pronounced in mice that were first learning the odour-reward pairing and less pronounced in mice that had learned the pairing — suggesting that these cells are involved in the encoding of the Pavlovian response. This research may have further implications for other disorders as dysfunction of this group of neurons is also implicated in Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Tourette’s syndrome.

  • Researchers target senescent cells, cells involved in aging, to reverse the signs of aging in mice. “This is the first time that somebody has shown that you can get rid of senescent cells without having any obvious side effects.” says cell and molecular biologist Francis Rodier of the University of Montreal in Canada. Dr. Rodier was not connected to the study.  The cells also share some properties with cancer cells.  Researchers hope to explore applications that could lead to treatments for cancer as well as age-related diseases.

The mice needed for the study are genetically predisposed to faster aging allowing researchers to evaluate their new molecule. Here we see old mice which are less active and have hair loss. Humane endpoints are especially important in these types of ensure animals do not experience unnecessary discomfort. Image Credit: Peter de Keizer

  • New drug found to alleviate symptoms associated with Type 2 diabetes (insulin resistance) in mice. Diabetes affects 29.1 million Americans (9.3% of the population) with 1.4 million new diagnoses annually. It is the 7th leading cause of death in the USA and 90% of all cases of diabetes are of the Type 2 Management of Type 2 diabetes usually involves diet management and exercise, although oral medications may be used to bring glucose levels under control. Therefore, treatments that permit an individual to gain control of their life or to limit the symptoms associated with this disease are wanting. In the present study, scientists investigated the role of low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP), in vivo for the first time. Using genetically modified mice that lacked LMPTP in the whole body and specifically in the liver, they found that LMPTP is associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes — improved glucose tolerance and reduced fasting insulin levels. They next developed, in vitro, a molecule inhibitor which preferentially binds to the receptor for LMPTP — blocking its action in the body. Testing this molecule, in mice, they again similar results to the experiment where the gene for LMPTP was removed (knocked out) — improved glucose tolerance and decreased fasting insulin levels. This study provided the first evidence of the signaling role of LMPTP in regards to Type 2 diabetes — and with subsequent replication and further testing may signal new hope for the millions of individuals that suffer from Type 2 diabetes.
  • The University of Cambridge has produced a series of videos about how its researchers are using animals (and people) to treat OCD – a neuropsychiatric disorder that can have debilitating effects. The three part series tracks science journalist and OCD-sufferer, David Adam, as he goes into the research labs at Cambridge and speaks to experts working with rats, monkeys and people. The video shows animal experiments being conducted, explaining why they are necessary. This is a great example of openness by the University of Cambridge. See other examples of videos being produced by labs.

Jeremy Bailoo

Cameras in the lab: Animal research visualised

There are many misconceptions about animal research and the welfare standards that exist in labs. Old footage and pictures, or imagery from countries with lower standards of welfare, are spread across the internet, but unless people see a lab for themselves it is hard to dissuade them of these preconceptions.

The best way to show people to the truth is to invite them into the lab and let them see for themselves. Journalists who tour labs are often amazed by the high standards of welfare that exist and even activists can often be persuaded that their perspective may have been misinformed. However, it is not possible to allow everyone to tour round labs – it would be disruptive to both the people and the animals, and science would potentially suffer.

Therefore another way to show people is to film it. A number of UK universities have brought out videos in the last few years (or in several cases the last few months), showing some of the amazing scientific work they are doing and how animals are a part of it. In this post we provide a few examples.

The University of Cambridge – Animal research into OCD

Just this week, Cambridge released a three part video about how they are using rats, marmosets, and people to better understand Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – a condition which can be debilitating for those with severe cases. Science journalist and OCD sufferer, David Adam, visits the University and labs to speak to some of the leading scientists about their use of animals.

Queen Mary University of London – Animal research across the university

QMUL shows images across the labs, talking to scientists about both their research and how animal welfare is maintained. There is a full discussion of how QMUL uses the 3Rs to improve both the science and welfare at the university.

Imperial College London – Welfare at their animal facilities

Imperial wanted to introduce the staff who care for the animals and give them a chance to talk about the important job they do to maintain and improve standards of welfare. The video includes rats and rabbits and discusses some of the regulations that exist in the UK.

University of Cambridge – Animal research and cancer

Another video from the University of Cambridge – this time specifically looking at how the university uses animals (and why it needs to) in order to understand and treat cancer. They also look at how the institution is trying to find non-animal methods to do some research.

University of Oxford – Housing and care of animals

The University of Oxford produced a video which shows some of the features of their animal facility. The video includes footage of mice, rats, frogs, ferrets and macaque monkeys.

Research Roundup: Ending the vaccine-autism myth, spider venom for stroke victims, and causes of polycystic ovary syndrome

Welcome to our third weekly roundups. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • Studies on the relation between the environment and autism are starting to build, ending the vaccine-autism myth started in 1998. No vaccination has met the criteria of being a cause of autism – although some environmental factors increase the risk two to four times. Our understanding of many of these risk factors has been greatly increased with the help of animal research. For example, mouse research on the relation between maternal immune activation and autism-like phenotypes was later found to be consistent in human populations. Also, links to prenatal exposure to medications with teratogens were investigated in rats and found to be consistent with humans.
  • Spiders venom saves stroke victims: Funnel-web spiders are among the world’s deadliest spiders, but their venom can be life-saving. Since the venom targets the prey’s nervous system, researchers tested whether it could be harnessed to reverse brain damage after a stroke. After traveling to Fraser Island to collect three Darling Downs funnel-web spiders, researchers at University of Queensland and Monash University “milked” the spiders to collect their venom, then isolated a protein called Hi1a — a molecule that closely resembles another known for its protective effect on neurons. The team then synthesized their own version of Hi1a and gave the compound to rats two hours after an induced stroke. Neuron damage was reduced by 80 percent. Eight hours after a stroke, it was still effective in restoring neurological and motor functions by almost 65 percent. The researchers hope to commence human clinical trials in the next few years, pending replication of these initial findings and further research into the molecule.

  • A new study has found that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may start in the brain, not the ovaries, contrary to previous belief. While the cause of PCOS is unknown, one feature of this syndrome is high levels of androgens. Using a high dose of androgens, PCOS was induced in genetically engineered mice which display a receptor for androgens in specific parts of the body (brain, ovaries, nowhere in the body and a normal control group). Mice with androgen receptors in the normal control group developed PCOS as expected, while those without receptors in the brain and in the entire body did not. Interestingly, mice without androgen receptors in the ovaries also developed PCOS albeit at a lower rate than the control group. These data replicate the finding that high levels of androgens are implicated in the development of PCOS. More importantly, they highlight that it may be the interaction of these androgen in the brain rather than the ovaries that lead to the development of PCOS. PCOS affects 5-10% of women aged 18 to 44 and this study, using mice, has provided valuable insight into the onset of this syndrome.

  • A new study finds in mice that whole body vibration (WBV), a less intensive form of regular exercise, mimics the benefits derived from regular exercise. To investigate the benefits of WBV, scientists exposed normal mice and mice which don’t produce a receptor for leptin (a hormone associated with the feeling of being full after eating) to no exercise, either daily treadmill exercise, or WBV for three months. They found that in the normal mice and the leptin-deficient mice, WBV and exercise, affected mice in a similar way — reduced body weight, enhanced muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity compared to mice that were sedentary (no exercise group). This research, using mice, suggests that WBV may be useful as a supplemental therapy for individuals suffering from metabolic disorders or morbid obesity and where regular exercise is not an option.
  • Researchers have created a backpack-sized artificial lung that was able to fully oxygenate the blood of sheep for six hours. William Federspiel, at the University of Pittsburgh, has subsequently said the device has been used successfully on sheep for five days. The device had to combine a pump and gas exchange while remaining small enough to be carried. Even smaller devices have been developed to work on rats, using ultrathin tubing, just 20 micrometers in diameter. Such technologies could allow people with lung failure to continue with many of their daily activities, rather than becoming bed-ridden and attached to today’s artificial lung machines.

Image Credit: William Federspiel

  • A study funded by the NC3Rs explores how different handling methods affected behavior in cognitive tasks. Tail handling is still one of the more common methods of handling mice in the laboratory despite variable evidence that alternative methods such as cupped or tunnel handling may be less stressful for the animal. The researchers compared how mice reacted to new stimuli after being transferred into the testing area via a tunnel or being picked up by the tail. Because being picked up by the tail may be stressful for mice, tests which involve exploration may be affected by tail handling – as one consequence of stress in mice is freezing behavior (staying immobile). They found that the tunnel handling facilitated greater exploratory behavior, indicating that the simple process of tail handling may confound behavioral measures relating to anxiety. 3Rs research like this can help to understand the needs of animals in research labs, with the aim of improving animal welfare and the replicability of experimental results.

Image Credit: Jane Hurst, University of Liverpool.

Speaking of Research