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Research Roundup: Ending the vaccine-autism myth, spider venom for stroke victims, and causes of polycystic ovary syndrome

Welcome to our third weekly roundups. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s Research Roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • Studies on the relation between the environment and autism are starting to build, ending the vaccine-autism myth started in 1998. No vaccination has met the criteria of being a cause of autism – although some environmental factors increase the risk two to four times. Our understanding of many of these risk factors has been greatly increased with the help of animal research. For example, mouse research on the relation between maternal immune activation and autism-like phenotypes was later found to be consistent in human populations. Also, links to prenatal exposure to medications with teratogens were investigated in rats and found to be consistent with humans.
  • Spiders venom saves stroke victims: Funnel-web spiders are among the world’s deadliest spiders, but their venom can be life-saving. Since the venom targets the prey’s nervous system, researchers tested whether it could be harnessed to reverse brain damage after a stroke. After traveling to Fraser Island to collect three Darling Downs funnel-web spiders, researchers at University of Queensland and Monash University “milked” the spiders to collect their venom, then isolated a protein called Hi1a — a molecule that closely resembles another known for its protective effect on neurons. The team then synthesized their own version of Hi1a and gave the compound to rats two hours after an induced stroke. Neuron damage was reduced by 80 percent. Eight hours after a stroke, it was still effective in restoring neurological and motor functions by almost 65 percent. The researchers hope to commence human clinical trials in the next few years, pending replication of these initial findings and further research into the molecule.

  • A new study has found that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may start in the brain, not the ovaries, contrary to previous belief. While the cause of PCOS is unknown, one feature of this syndrome is high levels of androgens. Using a high dose of androgens, PCOS was induced in genetically engineered mice which display a receptor for androgens in specific parts of the body (brain, ovaries, nowhere in the body and a normal control group). Mice with androgen receptors in the normal control group developed PCOS as expected, while those without receptors in the brain and in the entire body did not. Interestingly, mice without androgen receptors in the ovaries also developed PCOS albeit at a lower rate than the control group. These data replicate the finding that high levels of androgens are implicated in the development of PCOS. More importantly, they highlight that it may be the interaction of these androgen in the brain rather than the ovaries that lead to the development of PCOS. PCOS affects 5-10% of women aged 18 to 44 and this study, using mice, has provided valuable insight into the onset of this syndrome.

  • A new study finds in mice that whole body vibration (WBV), a less intensive form of regular exercise, mimics the benefits derived from regular exercise. To investigate the benefits of WBV, scientists exposed normal mice and mice which don’t produce a receptor for leptin (a hormone associated with the feeling of being full after eating) to no exercise, either daily treadmill exercise, or WBV for three months. They found that in the normal mice and the leptin-deficient mice, WBV and exercise, affected mice in a similar way — reduced body weight, enhanced muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity compared to mice that were sedentary (no exercise group). This research, using mice, suggests that WBV may be useful as a supplemental therapy for individuals suffering from metabolic disorders or morbid obesity and where regular exercise is not an option.
  • Researchers have created a backpack-sized artificial lung that was able to fully oxygenate the blood of sheep for six hours. William Federspiel, at the University of Pittsburgh, has subsequently said the device has been used successfully on sheep for five days. The device had to combine a pump and gas exchange while remaining small enough to be carried. Even smaller devices have been developed to work on rats, using ultrathin tubing, just 20 micrometers in diameter. Such technologies could allow people with lung failure to continue with many of their daily activities, rather than becoming bed-ridden and attached to today’s artificial lung machines.

Image Credit: William Federspiel

  • A study funded by the NC3Rs explores how different handling methods affected behavior in cognitive tasks. Tail handling is still one of the more common methods of handling mice in the laboratory despite variable evidence that alternative methods such as cupped or tunnel handling may be less stressful for the animal. The researchers compared how mice reacted to new stimuli after being transferred into the testing area via a tunnel or being picked up by the tail. Because being picked up by the tail may be stressful for mice, tests which involve exploration may be affected by tail handling – as one consequence of stress in mice is freezing behavior (staying immobile). They found that the tunnel handling facilitated greater exploratory behavior, indicating that the simple process of tail handling may confound behavioral measures relating to anxiety. 3Rs research like this can help to understand the needs of animals in research labs, with the aim of improving animal welfare and the replicability of experimental results.

Image Credit: Jane Hurst, University of Liverpool.

Speaking of Research

Tail or Tunnel: Handling Methods Influence Mouse Behavior in Cognitive Tasks

  • A study funded by the NC3Rs explored how handling methods influenced mice’s behavior during cognitive tasks
  • Mice were either picked up by the tail or guided into a tunnel, then transferred to the testing arena
  • Mice that were transferred in the tunnel were far more exploratory during the cognitive task
  • Acclimation to handling procedures is important

A new study published today in Scientific Reports shows that the way experimenters pick up mice can affect their behavior during cognitive tasks. The study was funded by the NC3Rs, which is dedicated to replacing, refining, and reducing the use of animals in research and testing. This particular study focused on refinement: identifying optimal handling methods for mice has important implications for both the welfare of the animals and the validity and usability of data that are collected, which could potentially lead to a reduction in the need for animals in future studies.

Image Credit: Jane Hurst, University of Liverpool.

Drs. Kelly Gouveia and Jane Hurst first placed laboratory mice near a new, attractive stimulus – urine from a novel mouse of the opposite sex – that is known to stimulate approach and investigation. The mice were allowed three sessions to grow accustomed to the new scent. Throughout all three sessions, mice were either picked up by the tail (standard laboratory practice, though there is no obvious scientific reasoning for this method) or were guided into a clear tunnel that is both affordable and easily sterilized. (The method is also easy to learn.) Mice were then carried to the test arena either by the tail or in the tunnel and allowed to explore. Gouveia and Hurst report that mice picked up by the tail showed very little willingness to explore the test arena, and therefore investigate the new stimulus, whereas those transported in the tunnel showed much higher exploration and a strong interest in the new scent.

Importantly, Gouveia and Hurst then tested the mice’s ability to discriminate between the (formerly) new scent and a second, different urine stimulus. They report that since the mice picked up by the tail performed so poorly from the start, they did not discriminate between the two scents. However, those transported in the tunnel showed robust and reliable discrimination. These findings are noteworthy not only with respect to the psychological welfare of the animals, but also for the important effects that handling and habituation have on yielding usable, reliable data. With the potential to reduce the stress associated with handling, the tunnel method could reduce the anxiety that mice display upon tail handling – thereby resulting in more species-typical behaviors, such as exploration of a novel, conspecific scent. It could also reduce the uncontrolled variation that exists in animal studies and could ultimately produce more reliable data. Thus, identifying optimal handling techniques has the potential to reduce the number of animals needed in laboratory studies in addition to refining the techniques used to study them and enhance their welfare.

Image Credit: Jane Hurst, University of Liverpool.

It is worth noting that a study by Novak and colleagues (2015) found no difference in cognitive performance between mice that were handled by the tail or by a less invasive method (“cupping” in the experimenter’s hands). Why might no difference have been found in this study? One possibility is that the cognitive task the researchers used was different from the present study (a radial arm maze vs. novel scent), and the arm maze may probe for different behaviors than a novel odor task. Another possibility is that perhaps mice “prefer” the tunnel to both tail handling and cupping, but neither the 2015 nor the present study compared all three methods. Hurst and her colleague Rebecca West did compare all three methods in a 2010 study, however, and found that mice preferred both the tunnel and cupping method to tail handling (as assessed by voluntary interaction time with the experimenter); although the cupping method produced more variable results depending on strain and sex. However, in the Novak study, mice were handled daily for many weeks, whereas in the Hurst & West study they were handled only for nine days. Of course, the most parsimonious explanation is that in every handling study, experimenter interaction is confounded with handling. That is, are the mice acclimating to the experimenters, to the handling procedures, or both?

These questions underscore the need for replication before firm conclusions about optimal handling techniques can be drawn. Nevertheless, the findings published today in Scientific Reports are an important addition to the field of animal welfare, and they emphasize the importance of constant, rigorous studies surrounding welfare issues.

Amanda Dettmer

References:

Gouveia K, Hurst JL (2017) Optimising reliability of mouse performance in behavioural testing: the major role of non-aversive handling. Scientific Reports 7: 44999. doi: 10.1038/srep44999

Hurst JL, West RS (2010) Taming anxiety in laboratory mice. Nature Methods. Oct;7(10): 825-6

Novak J, Bailoo JD, Melotti L, Rommen J, Würbel H (2015) An Exploration Based Cognitive Bias Test for Mice: Effects of Handling Method and Stereotypic Behaviour. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0130718. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130718

Research Roundup: Ebola vaccine hope for apes, gene therapy for dogs, and research into stroke

Welcome to the second of our Research Roundups. These Friday posts aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week. Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • The first orally administered vaccine for Ebola developed for the conservation of wild apes, has completed its first and final biomedical research trial for the foreseeable future. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, shows that the vaccine was effective and did not induce health complications or lead to signs of stress in the apes. Lead investigator, Peter Walsh statedIn an ideal world, there would be no need for captive chimpanzees. But this is not an ideal world. It is a world where diseases such as Ebola, along with rampant commercial poaching and habitat loss, are major contributors to rapidly declining wild ape populations.Oral vaccines offer a real opportunity to slow this decline. The major ethical debt we owe is not to a few captive animals, but to the survival of an entire species we are destroying in the wild: our closest relatives.

One of the captive chimpanzees in the research trial receiving the oral Ebola vaccination. Credit: Matthias Schnell, Thomas Jefferson University.

  • A new compound, P7C3-A20, has been shown to prevent brain cell death and to promote new cell growth in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Nearly 87% of all strokes are ischemic strokes. Strokes kill 130,000 Americans yearly, with someone in the USA having a stroke every 40 seconds and with a death occurring every 4 minutes.
  • A new gene therapy, which aims to treat the fatal muscle-wasting disease, myotubular myopathy or MTM, has shown considerable success in dogs. Like humans, dogs naturally get this disease as a result of a genetic defect which tends to lead to breathing difficulty and early death. One year after a single gene therapy treatment, the dogs with the condition were indistinguishable from the control group. This offers huge promise for future human therapies for MTM. Results were published in Molecular Therapy.

Image from Science Daily

  • A team of scientists have prevented and alleviated two autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes, in early stage mouse models. Autoimmune diseases affect an estimated 23 million Americans, and this research using mice highlights the importance of animal research in alleviating these debilitating diseases.
  • A new study finds that Lactobacillus, a common bacteria found in yogurt, may be used to alleviate symptoms associated with depression in mice – providing hope for the 7% of the population that experience a major depressive episode at least once in their lifetime. The study was published in Scientific Reports.

Image by Understanding Animal Research.

  • Canadian animal rights group, Last Chance for Animals, has alleged mistreatment of animals at the Contract Research Organisation, ITR Laboratories. The footage was included in a CTV W5 news report. In response to the infiltration video, ITR Labs released a statement saying they had parted ways with a number of technicians seen inappropriately handling animals in the footage. The Canadian Council of Animal Care also released a statement explaining that an inspection of the ITR facilities was now being organized.

300 Voices Speaking out For Research

Speaking of Research has worked hard at collating the animal research statements of hundreds of institutions – that list has now reached 300 institutions spanning eleven countries.

We still need your help to complete list – please check that your institution is on there. We are looking for a web page which clearly states that the institution conducts animal studies (and preferably explains why this is important). Submit your institution through our web form.

The excellent animal research pages of the pharmaceutical, Bayer.

We urge institutions to ensure they have an update to date statement which includes a strong explanation of how and why they conduct animal research, as well as the steps they take to maintain and improve animal welfare. Such information can be bolstered by case studies, statistics, images and videos. So far, only 23 (of 300) institutions have achieved full marks when we’ve rated the information available. See the full list at the bottom.

One thing that becomes apparent is that those institutions scoring highly have created a visible, and easily accessible, section of their website – usually with an easy-to-find URL such as (for UK institutions “.edu” is replaced with “.ac.uk”).

  • institution.edu/animal-research
  • institution.edu/research/animal-research
  • institution.edu/research/using-animals-in-research
  • animalcare.institution.edu
  • animalresearch.institution.edu

URL’s like these not only allow the link to be found (usually through a couple of clicks) easily from the homepage, but they also help when Googling for such information. Institutions try googling “institution animal research” and see what comes up – if your institution does not provide much information, will animal rights groups fill the vacuum?

An infographic from the University of Gronigen’s (NL) Annual Report on animal research

Speaking of Research do not believe there is any excuse for open communication about animal research online. The UK has been leading the way here (over half of the statements receiving full marks are from the UK), in part due to the Concordat on Openness – which most animal research institutions have signed up to – demanding such a statement to be drawn up.

Speaking of Research are willing to work with any institution that wants to improve its web content. We are happy to make recommendations and review drafts (for free). 

The 23 institutions receiving full marks are:

The University of Sheffield website got a 4/4 rating for its information

Research Roundup: Death of a pioneer, 2017 Brain Prize, and unsubstantiated claims by PETA

Welcome to the first in a series of weekly Research Roundups. These aim to inform our readers about the many stories that relate to animal research each week.

Do you have an animal research story we should include in next week’s roundup? You can send it to us via our Facebook page or through the contact form on the website.

  • Thomas Starzl the father of organ transplantation has died. Beginning with his work on liver transplantation in dogs in the 1950s, and subsequent refinement of the procedure using livers from pigs and primates, today “more than half of the liver-transplant patients who underwent surgery in 1998 were alive ten years later, and in 2009, almost 50,000 Americans carried a transplanted liver” (Lasker Foundation).” Read more about this here and here.

The father of organ transplantation, Thomas Starzl.

  • 2017 Brain Prize announced – Peter Dayan, Ray Dolan and Wolfram Schultz. Collectively, their work examines the ability of humans and animals to link rewards to events and actions. This research, involving non-human primates, provides valuable insights into motivation to perform both positive and negative behaviour, how those behaviours regulate emotions such as happiness and how dysregulation may affect addictive/compulsive behaviours such as gambling. Read more about this here.

  • An unannounced four-day inspection of the animal research facilities at the University of Pittsburgh found no wrongdoing. The inspection was triggered by unspecified allegations by the animal rights group PETA, though USDA officials could not find evidence corroborating the claims by PETA. This is not the first time we have noted that animal rights groups claims against labs which cannot be substantiated by inspectors. More here.
  • Tasmanian devil cancer is a major threat Tasmanian devils with more than 80% of the population being wiped out since it emerged 20 years ago. Fighting cancer with cancer, and in a culmination of 6 years of research, scientists have managed to achieve a 60% survival rate (3 out of 5). The application of animal research takes all forms, and this is a good example of techniques being developed in the lab on nonhuman animals being used to save other nonhuman animals. More here and here.

Tasmanian devils under threat

  • Ethical deliberation of the killing of wild animals humanely for conservation is considered here. The killing of animals by humans warrants moral and ethical consideration. Animal research can be used to inform such decisions so that they are grounded in sound scientific evidence.
  • In a concerning move, advisors to President Trump suggested removing regulations requiring pharmaceutical companies to perform pre-clinical trials which ensure human safety before bringing them to the market. You can read more about the value of animal research in pre-clinical trials here.
  • The NC3Rs has awarded the 2016 3Rs prize to Daniel Weary who investigated possible refinements to the legislative requirements for rats housed in the laboratory for research. Read more here and here. This prize and this research highlights governing bodies’ and researchers’ dedication to the health and well-being of the animals under their care. Well done, Daniel!

Check back next Friday for another weekly roundup.

Jeremy Bailoo and Justin Varholick

Thomas Starzl (1926-2017) – The man who saved countless humans using animal research

Dr. Starzl, a pioneer in the field of surgery and the “father” of organ transplantation in humans, was the first surgeon to perform a human liver transplant.

The liver is a remarkable organ, although more specifically it is a gland. It is essential to the functioning of the human body and is involved in metabolism, the production of hormones, detoxification — to name a few of its many functions. Unlike some of the other organs in the human body — of which we have two, such as the kidneys — there is no redundancy for the liver. For example, if one kidney fails the other kidney can compensate for the loss of function, and in many cases people with one kidney can live a normal life. In contrast, in cases of liver failure the only way to continue living would be liver transplantation; although in the short term — usually while waiting for a liver transplant — liver dialysis may be used. However, the liver is quite remarkable, and unlike many other organs possesses the capacity to regenerate, even if as much as 50 to 75% of the organ is damaged. Chronic liver disease, lasting more than six months, is debilitating and if not assessed early and treated (where possible) leads to death. It is estimated that over 50 million people are impacted from chronic liver disease.

Dr. Starzl’s work on human organ transplants was based on his earlier fundamental (basic) research in dogs. Unaware then of the potential application to humans, Dr. Starzl was investigating the role of nutrient rich blood and its contribution to liver health. Dr. Starzl formulated this question based on a lecture by Dr. Stuart Welch in 1957, who described an experiment where he had grafted an extra liver into a dog. In this experiment, blood left the grafted liver via the same system as the original liver, while the system bringing blood to the liver was different. Dr. Starzl hypothesized that the reason Dr. Welch’s transplant failed was a consequence of the different blood supply which brought blood to the liver.

Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh

In his subsequent investigations, Dr. Starzl developed and refined several liver transplant procedures in dogs — with his first success (survival after the operation) occurring in 1958. Between then and 1963, when the first human liver transplantation occurred, much research was being performed into immunosuppression by Dr. Roy Calne — also in dogs. This research was integral to the organ transplant field. Without understanding immunosuppression, the body would reject the donor organ; rendering the transplant useless. This pioneering work, in conjunction with Dr. Starzl’s own work, led to the first attempt at a human liver transplant in 1963. This first transplant was not successful, with the patient dying during the operation. Subsequent operations also resulted in patient death within a few weeks. However, those deaths provided evidence that the donor liver was able to function in the recipient’s body.

Dr. Starzl continued to refine and update his method, later moving his investigations to pigs — grafts from pigs were better tolerated by the human recipient. Then in 1967, he reopened his program and performed the first successful human liver transplant. Mortality after the procedure decreased over time, and “more than half of the liver-transplant patients who underwent surgery in 1998 were alive ten years later, and in 2009, almost 50,000 Americans carried a transplanted liver” (Lasker Foundation).

In 2012, Dr. Starzl and Roy Calne were honoured with the Lasker Award for their pioneering work in liver transplantation – “an intervention that has restored normal life to thousands of patients with end-stage liver disease”.

Complete liver replacement in the dog. The fact that the recipient was a dog rather than a human is identifiable only by the multi-lobar appearance of the liver. Image from University of Pittsburgh

Dr. Starzl was a brilliant scientist with a prolific career; over 2200 articles, 26 honorary degrees, and thousands of lives helped/saved by his work. We have previously written about this here; discussing him receiving the Lasker award. Similar to that post, we recommend reading about Dr. Starzl and his remarkable life here. We also encourage our readers to reflect upon his work, and the remarkable progress that was made using non-human animals for research. In particular, much of his pioneering work was derived from fundamental research investigating surgical procedures in dogs and his later work, refining the method, involved other non-human animals: pigs and baboons. It is often difficult to estimate the prospective benefit of research performed in non-human animals — but Dr. Starzl’s work is a great example of the potential reach of such research.

Jeremy Bailoo

Winners of 2017 Brain Prize announced – Peter Dayan, Ray Dolan and Wolfram Schultz

The one million Euro Brain Prize, awarded by the Lundbeck Foundation in Denmark, has gone to three neuroscientists for their work understanding the mechanisms of reward in the brain. The winners are:

  • Peter Dayan – Director of the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College of London
  • Ray Dolan – Director of the Max Planck Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing
  • Wolfram Schultz – Professor of Neuroscience and Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow at the University of Cambridge

Collectively, their work examines the ability of humans and animals to link rewards to events and actions. This capacity has been a foundation of our survival, but can also be the root of many neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as addiction, compulsive behaviour and schizophrenia. In order for the successful survival and reproduction of a species, an animal must be able to make decisions that avoid danger and bring benefits (such as food, shelter, etc.). T decision-making requires predicting outcomes from environmental clues and previously learned responses. For instance, certain smells may indicate that an animal should prepare to chase prey, or to avoid a fruit item. The brain plays a key role in this decision making and learning, and at the centre of this is the neurotransmitter dopamine.

wolfram-schultz

Wolfram Schultz

In the 1980s, Professor Wolfram Schultz developed a way of recording the activity of neurons in the brain that use dopamine to transmit information. He found that the dopamine neurons would respond whenever a monkey was given fruit juice reward. Schultz then showed the animals different visual patterns; whenever a certain pattern was shown, the monkey would receive a reward. After a time the dopamine neurons began to respond to the visual pattern, rather than the juice reward (response to the juice reward itself declined over time). Conversely, when no reward was given (after the correct pattern was shown), the dopamine neuron activity decreased below normal levels. If the reward was given at another time or was bigger than expected, the dopamine neuron activity would spike (1).  This was the first clear demonstration of the neurological basis of one cornerstone of learning theory in Comparative and Behavioural Psychology; Pavlovian conditioning (2).

Building on Schultz’s work, Peter Dayan found the pattern of activity from dopamine neurons described by Schultz resembled the ‘reward prediction error’.  This signal is the difference between predicted and actual reward resulting from an action or event. It continuously updates according to the result of new events and outcomes. Dayan would go on to work with Schultz to create computational models investigating how the brain uses information to make predictions and how this information is updated when new or contrasting information is presented.

Peter Dayan

Peter Dayan

Schultz explains the reward prediction error and resulting learning in the following analogy:

I am standing in front of a drink-dispensing machine in Japan that seems to allow me to buy six different types of drinks, but I cannot read the words. I have a low expectation that pressing a particular button will deliver my preferred blackcurrant juice (a chance of one in six). So I just press the second button from the right, and then a blue can appears with a familiar logo that happens to be exactly the drink I want. That is a pleasant surprise, better than expected. What would I do the next time I want the same blackcurrant juice from the machine? Of course, press the second button from the right. Thus, my surprise directs my behavior to a specific button. I have learned something, and I will keep pressing the same button as long as the same can comes out. However, a couple of weeks later, I press that same button again, but another, less preferred can appears. Unpleasant surprise, somebody must have filled the dispenser differently. Where is my preferred can? I press another couple of buttons until my blue can comes out. And of course I will press that button again the next time I want that blackcurrant juice, and hopefully all will go well.

Which button to push?

Which button to push?

What happened? The first button press delivered my preferred can. This pleasant surprise is what we call a positive reward prediction error. “Error” refers to the difference between the can that came out and the low expectation of getting exactly that one, irrespective of whether I made an error or something else went wrong. “Reward” is any object or stimulus that I like and of which I want more. “Reward prediction error” then means the difference between the reward I get and the reward that was predicted. Numerically, the prediction error on my first press was 1 minus 1/6, the difference between what I got and what I reasonably expected. Once I get the same can again and again for the same button press, I get no more surprises; there is no prediction error, I don’t change my behavior, and thus I learn nothing more about these buttons. But what about the wrong can coming out 2 weeks later? I had the firm expectation of my preferred blackcurrant juice but, unpleasant surprise, the can that came out was not the one I preferred. I experienced a negative prediction error, the difference between the nonpreferred, lower valued can and the expected preferred can. At the end of the exercise, I have learned where to get my preferred blackcurrant juice, and the prediction errors helped me to learn where to find it.

Professor Ray Dolan’s work has involved imaging the human brain in order to understand the mechanisms for learning and decision-making. Advancing the work of Schultz and Dayan, he showed that the reward prediction error can account for how humans learn, and the role that dopamine plays within it. He has collaborated with Dayan for the past decade to investigate human motivation, variations in happiness, and human gambling behaviour.

Ray Dolan

Ray Dolan

Schultz continues to study both animals and humans, using neuroimaging to study changes in neuron signals in Parkinson’s patients, smokers and drug addicts. The more we understand the process which leads people to take certain actions, the better positioned we are to intervene.

Professor Sir Colin Blakemore (University of London), chairman of the Brain Prize selection committee said,

“The judges concluded that the discoveries made by Wolfram Schultz, Peter Dayan and Ray Dolan were crucial for understanding how the brain detects reward and uses this information to guide behaviour. This work is a wonderful example of the creative power of interdisciplinary research, bringing together computational explanations of the role of activity in the monkey brain with advanced brain imaging in human beings to illuminate the way in which we use reward to regulate our choices and actions. The implications of these discoveries are extremely wide-ranging, in fields as diverse as economics, social science, drug addiction and psychiatry”.

Primate research remains today an invaluable tool for comparative research into human health and disease. While other animals remain useful as models for such investigations, non-human primates are arguably the best species to be used for such investigations due to their remarkable similarity to humans. The research performed by Schultz, and built upon by Dayan and Dolan, highlight this simple fact and perhaps also exemplifies why critical consideration against the use of non-human primates for research is needed. The Brain Prize also shows how animal and non-animal methods are often used together to build our understanding of how the brain works.

Speaking of Research

  1. Schultz, W., 2015, Neuronal Reward and Decision Signals: From Theories to Data, Physiol Rev 95(3)
  2. Schultz, W. et al, 1993, Responses of Monkey Dopamine Neurons to Reward and Conditioned Stimuli during Successive Steps of Learning a Delayed Response Task, Journal of Neuroscience 13(3)