Author Archives: Editor

Do you have a passion for explaining science? We need you!

Speaking of Research is a group of like-minded researchers and science communicators. We have flourished over the last 8.5 years thanks to the hard work of a committee that has come together to help each other, as well as fellow researchers and institutions. Despite having a budget of about $200/year, we have come together to build one of the biggest resources about animal research on the internet. We believe that openness about animal research is the best way to win over public and policymakers. But, we need your help to achieve this.

The SR committee is an ever-changing group of around 20 people who are motivated to make a change in the way we talk about animal research. The committee is made up of people from across North America and Europe, but we would also welcome people from further afield to help us understand the animal research environment in other countries.

Committee members often write articles debunking misinformation propagated by animal rights groups [Image by Randall Munroe or XKCD]

Committee members often write articles debunking misinformation propagated by animal rights groups [Image by Randall Munroe or XKCD]

What type of people on the committee?

  • Scientists who use animals in their research – be it fruit flies, mice or monkeys. It doesn’t matter if you’re a Masters student or a tenured professor, your support is valued.
  • Veterinarians who work within animal research facilities.
  • Animal care technicians who work to look after animals in laboratories.
  • Science communicators, particularly those who do media relations or public engagement for an institution conducting animal research or relevant society.

What does the committee do?

  • Writing – this is one of the key jobs of our central committee – ensuring that there is new material on the website (and updating existing pages). People write about their own research, research in the news, debunking misinformation by activists, responding to policy changes and much more. Not a great writer? Some of our best articles are produced by guest authors, but we still need to be the ones to find those people.
  • Social Media – we need people to help put science news on Twitter, Facebook and other social media channels.
  • Sharing news and information. Seen some amazing new medical breakthrough? Information about animal activism?
  • Networking – From individuals and institutions wanting to become more actively involved in animal research outreach, to those targeted by activism, the SR committee works to support scientists and institutions worldwide.
  • Media work – We are often required to give comments to journalists, or occasionally appear on radio and TV. Having numerous people prepared to step up to the plate is always useful. We have worked with committee members to train them in talking to the media. We also put our press releases and produce briefing materials for journalists.
  • Conferences – Speaking of Research members have often spoken about animal research outreach at conferences including Society for Neuroscience and AALAS.

SR member talking about the importance of openness on the BBC.

How can I join the committee?

Contact us! We’d love to hear from you, even if you just have some questions. We ask new members to write an article for the website to show their interest in explaining animal research (we can help advise on topics, as well as provide support in editing and proofing any drafts).

What am I expected to do on the committee?

We do understand that our careers often mean there are periods where we are unable to help, but hope you find  some time to contribute in some manner to Speaking of Research’s goals.

  • Email List – the committee communicates through an email list. While we don’t expect everyone to reply to every email, we do ask that people contribute their knowledge or support occasionally.
  • Blog – We ask every committee member to contribute one article every four months (or to find a colleague who might contribute a guest post). This ensures we have a minimum amount of news on the website (thankfully, some committee members contribute much more). Articles tend to be 400-1500 words, but we are very flexible.
  • Contribute – We hope committee members find other ways of contributing. Some people keep an eye out for new statistics, some people look out for institutional animal research statements, and some people help post on social media. Whatever you can do, we welcome the help.
The committee communicates primarily by email

The committee communicates primarily by email

I’m not ready for the committee, but I still want to help!

We have written extensively on other ways you can help us.

While all our committee are volunteers, we still require a small amount of funding to keep our website going and carry out small outreach activities (we have produced posters for conferences and promoted articles on social media). Donating just €10/£10/$10 is a huge help to our efforts in explaining the important role of animals in medical and veterinary research.

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Yours sincerely

The Speaking of Research committee

SYR: How sheep can help us understand why girls are reaching puberty at younger ages

michelle-bedenbaughThis guest post is the second written by Michelle Bedenbaugh, a Ph.D. student in the Physiology and Pharmacology Department at West Virginia University. Check out her first post on the benefits of using large animal models to study reproduction. It is also part of our Speaking of Your Research series of posts where scientists discuss their own research. In this post, Michelle discusses some of the cells and signaling pathways that are important for controlling the timing of puberty and how the use of sheep as a model is beneficial for this type of research. If you would be willing to write a guest article for Speaking of Research, please contact us here.

For those of you who have been watching the news in the United States over the past 5-10 years, you have probably heard a few discussions about the fact that girls are reaching puberty at younger ages.  In the 1980s, girls normally reached puberty around the age of 13.  In 2010, the average age of girls reaching puberty had dropped to 11 and has since continued to decline.  Reaching puberty at earlier ages is associated with several adverse health outcomes, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic syndrome, obesity, osteoporosis, several reproductive cancers and psychosocial distress.  The public and researchers have pointed fingers at several potential culprits, including an unhealthy diet, chemicals that disrupt the body’s normal hormonal environment, and an individual’s genetic predisposition to disease.  In reality, a combination of factors have probably led to the decrease in the age at which girls reach puberty, but I don’t want get into a discussion about these factors today.  Instead, I want to talk about some of the signaling molecules in the body that these factors may be influencing to affect the initiation of puberty.

As with many processes in the human body, the brain plays a critical role in the control of reproduction and the timing of puberty.  Within a specific area of the brain called the hypothalamus, several populations of neurons (specialized cells in the brain) exist that control reproduction.  The activity of these neurons is influenced by various factors that are communicated from other parts of the body and outside environment to the brain, including nutritional status, concentrations of sex steroids (like estrogen and testosterone), genetics, and many other external factors.  All of these factors tell the brain when an individual has obtained the qualities necessary to successfully reproduce and therefore undergo pubertal maturation.  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons found in the hypothalamus are the final step in this chain of communication and are essential for the initiation of puberty.

A GnRH neuron present in the hypothalamus.

A GnRH neuron present in the hypothalamus.

Most of these nutritional, hormonal, genetic and environmental signals are not directly communicated to GnRH neurons.  Instead, they are conveyed through other types of neurons that then relay this information to GnRH neurons which either stimulates or inhibits the release of GnRH.  Because GnRH is a signaling molecule that ultimately stimulates the maturation of male (sperm) and female (egg) gametes, stimulating GnRH in turn stimulates reproductive processes while inhibiting GnRH inhibits reproductive processes.  The perfect balance of stimulatory and inhibitory inputs is needed for GnRH to be released and for puberty to be initiated.  Consequently, if stimulatory inputs signal to increase GnRH prematurely, puberty will occur earlier, which may result in several of the health concerns that were mentioned above later in life, including reproductive cancers and psychosocial distress.  In contrast, if inhibitory inputs block the release of GnRH, puberty will never occur and result in infertility.

My research looks at some of these stimulatory and inhibitory inputs and how they communicate with each other, as well as with GnRH neurons.  Two of the stimulatory signaling molecules that we research are kisspeptin and neurokinin B (funny names, I know).  We also study dynorphin (another funny name), a molecule that inhibits GnRH release.  These three molecules can all individually affect GnRH release and therefore reproduction.  However, the really cool thing about these three molecules are that they are actually present together in a special type of neuron that is only found in one small and highly specific area of the hypothalamus.  Because these neurons contain kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin, they are often called KNDy (pronounced “candy”) neurons.  The fact that kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin are all present in these KNDy neurons together allows for them to communicate directly and affect each other’s release.  This communication then ultimately affects the release of GnRH.  Before puberty, inhibitory inputs, like dynorphin, dominate and don’t allow for adequate amounts of GnRH to be released to stimulate reproduction.  As an individual matures, stimulatory inputs, like kisspeptin and neurokinin B, begin to outweigh inhibitory inputs, and GnRH can be released in adequate amounts to support reproductive processes.  Below is a figure that summarizes how we think all of this works within the body.  However, there is still a lot that we don’t know about how kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin interact with each other that is waiting to be discovered!

Hypothesized model for the initiation of puberty. (1) Internal and external factors are communicated to the body. (2) Next, these factors are relayed through various signaling pathways to stimulatory and inhibitory molecules present in neurons located in the hypothalamus. (3) Stimulatory and inhibitory molecules travel to GnRH neurons and affect the release of GnRH. (4) GnRH stimulates reproductive processes that are critical for the initiation of puberty. (5) Once all of the proper conditions are met, reproductive maturity is attained.

Hypothesized model for the initiation of puberty. (1) Internal and external factors are communicated to the body. (2) Next, these factors are relayed through various signaling pathways to stimulatory and inhibitory molecules present in neurons located in the hypothalamus. (3) Stimulatory and inhibitory molecules travel to GnRH neurons and affect the release of GnRH. (4) GnRH stimulates reproductive processes that are critical for the initiation of puberty. (5) Once all of the proper conditions are met, reproductive maturity is attained.

To complete all of these studies, we use sheep as our model.  I know what some of you are thinking.  “How in the world would sheep serve as a good model for how puberty is initiated in humans?  I don’t think I am similar to a sheep at all!”  In fact, sheep are actually an excellent model in which to do this research.  The signaling pathways that affect the release of GnRH in sheep are very similar to the signaling pathways in humans, and in some cases, are even more similar to the human pathways than the pathways present in mice or rats.  In humans and sheep, neurokinin B has only been found to stimulate GnRH release.  However, in rodents, there have been reports of neurokinin B both stimulating and inhibiting GnRH release.  Since neurokinin B is one of the main signaling molecules that we study, using sheep instead of mice or rats is more beneficial for modeling what is occurring in humans.

sheep-in-reproduction-research

Because we have to collect several blood samples from the sheep in order to measure hormone concentrations, having an animal with a larger blood volume is also advantageous.  Several hormones in the body (including GnRH) are released in a pulsatile manner, meaning one minute GnRH concentrations are high and a few minutes later they are low.  Therefore, in order to appropriately measure GnRH, blood samples need to be taken every 10-12 minutes for several hours.  This is not feasible in rodents.  If you took blood samples as frequently in rodents as is possible in sheep, you would risk killing the animal.  Some scientists who use rodents as their research model attempt to get around this issue by taking blood samples less frequently.  However, this means their hormone measurements are less accurate.

These are just a few of the many reasons why we conduct our research in sheep (to learn more about the advantages of using sheep and other large animal models to conduct research involving reproduction, see my previous post).

While most people (including myself) do not look back fondly on our awkward pubertal years, I absolutely love studying the signaling pathways the body uses to determine when it is ready to successfully reproduce.  We have discovered quite a bit over the past few decades concerning how different internal and external factors affect pubertal maturation, but there are still so many unknowns left to be determined.  I look forward to hopefully discovering some of these unknowns and improving our understanding of how puberty is initiated in both humans and livestock species.

Michelle Bedenbaugh

Society for Neuroscience: Session on engaging institutions about animal research

If you are one of the 30,000 or so neuroscientists attending the Society for Neuroscience (SfN) 2016 meeting in San Diego that starts this weekend, then make sure you watch this session on engaging institutions about animal research.

Animals in Research Panel (SfN; Tues, Nov 15, 10am-Noon, CC Room 10):  

How to Engage Institutions to Publicly Support Animal Research; a Top-Down Approach

society-for-neuroscience-2016

Description: Worldwide, researchers are engaging the public to increase the understanding and need for animals in research. However, scientists need research institutions to facilitate greater openness about animal research conducted on campus and to reject the fear of attracting negative attention. This panel will discuss the proven benefits of positive institutional public communication and openness, as well as strategies to engage our institutions to publicly support animal research.

  • Opening Remarks: Committee on Animals in Research Chair, Mar Sanchez, Ph.D. (Associate Professor, Emory University)
  • Kirk Leech, (Associate Director, European Animal Research Association –EARA-)
  • David Jentsch, Ph.D. (Professor of Psychology, Binghamton University)
  • John Morrison, Ph.D. (director of the California National Primate Research Center)
  • Carrie Wolinetz, Ph.D. (Associate Director for Science Policy and Director of the Office of Science Policy, National Institutes of Health –NIH-)
  • Q&A session

Separate to this meeting, you should check out Booth 4216 in Exhibit Hall to talk to the Consortium for Public Outreach on Animal Research (@AR_Consortium) of which Speaking of Research is a member.

consortium-on-animal-research

SYR: The case for using large animal models to study reproduction

michelle-bedenbaughThis guest post is written by Michelle Bedenbaugh, a Ph.D. student in the Physiology and Pharmacology Department at West Virginia University. It is part of our Speaking of Your Research series of posts where scientists discuss their own research. Michelle’s research involves examining the brain’s role in the initiation of puberty.  In this post, Michelle discusses the benefits of using large animal models to study reproduction.  If you would be willing to write a guest article for Speaking of Research, please contact us here.

With the increasing pressure to publish papers and the decreasing amount of funds made available to conduct experiments, it has become more difficult for researchers to survive and thrive in an academic setting (see here, here, and here). Scientists have had to adapt, and in many situations, this has led to a significant amount of research that relies heavily on small animal models, including rodents and invertebrates.  In addition to being less expensive than large animal models (sheep, pigs, cows, horses, etc.) there are also more genetic tools and techniques available to use in small animal models.  For example, transgenic mice, where certain genes can be either deleted or overexpressed, are used commonly by researchers worldwide.  Other cutting edge techniques, like optogenetics, where light can be used to control the activity of cells in the brain, are also being used on a more routine basis in rodent models and currently don’t exist in large animal models.

Optogenetics involved using light to control genetically modified cells inside the body

Optogenetics involved using light to turn off or on cells in the brain

While it is most likely easier, cheaper, and faster to conduct experiments using small animal models, in certain situations they are not always the most comparable to humans.  When modeling certain diseases or understanding certain physiological processes, larger animals, like sheep, pigs, and cows, provide a better model for scientists.  This post aims to look at some areas where larger mammals can provide important knowledge or understanding.

A few of the more obvious benefits to using large animal models when compared to small animal models are that large animals are more analogous to humans in regards to body size, organ size, and lifespan.  In addition to these similarities, animals like sheep, cows, and pigs are much less inbred when compared to rodents.  Some would argue that it is advantageous to use animals that are highly inbred because this decreases the amount of variability in an experiment.  However, each human has a unique genetic makeup, and sometimes solutions for problems in inbred rodents cannot be translated for use in humans.  Therefore, in these instances, it is probably more beneficial to use a less inbred large animal model.  Most large animal models also have the added benefit of being an economically important species.  The majority of researchers who use large animal models are attempting to find solutions to health issues that are present in humans.  However, successful experiments in large animal models have the ability to affect both human and animal health.  For example, if a researcher made an important discovery about the way food intake is controlled in cows, it would have the possibility of improving human health, as well as increasing profitability for cattle producers.  Because cows are very similar to sheep, it may also benefit sheep production as well.  Rodents are not an economically important species that provides food, fiber, or other essential products used by the human population.  Consequently, discoveries made in rodents and other small animal models may only benefit humans if the results are translatable.

My particular research focuses on furthering our understanding of how puberty is initiated in girls, and we use sheep as our animal model.  I won’t get into the specific benefits of using sheep to conduct puberty research today because I will discuss this more in my next post.  However, I did want to touch briefly on some of the advantages of using large animals to perform research used to study reproduction in a broader sense.

The brain plays an essential role in controlling reproductive processes.  The brain structure of large animals is more closely related to humans than small animals because large species have a sulcated cortex (meaning the surface of the brain is wrinkly) as opposed to small animal species which have a smooth cortex.

Comparison between mouse (smooth cortex) and human (sulcated cortex) brain. [Credit: Elizabeth Atkinson, Washington University in St. Louis]

Comparison between mouse (smooth cortex) and human (sulcated cortex) brain. [Credit: Elizabeth Atkinson, Washington University in St. Louis]

Sheep also have the advantage of their brain and the cellular pathways present within it being similarly organized to what is observed in non-human primates.  Hormones serve a major role in relaying information from the brain to reproductive organs and vice versa.  The actions of several hormones that aid in controlling reproduction in female sheep (like estrogen and progesterone) parallel the actions of these hormones in humans.  Older sheep also have a similar response to estrogen replacement therapy when compared to post-menopausal women.  The development and function of several structures on the ovary of sheep is also similar to that which is observed in women.  These structures have a major influence on the reproductive cycle and are critical for the maturation of female gametes (sometimes referred to as eggs).  Assisted reproductive technologies, many of which are used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols in women who are having trouble conceiving, have been adapted from procedures used in livestock species.  For example, artificial insemination, where semen is collected from a male and usually frozen so that it can be used to inseminate a female at a later time, is commonly used in cows, sheep, horses and pigs and is similar to procedures conducted in humans.

Credit: Livestock Breeding Services - http://www.livestockbreedingservices.com.au/images/servicesai.jpg

A laparoscopic procedure is used to artificially inseminate sheep

 

Embryo transfer, where embryos from one female are placed into the uterus of another female, are also used in livestock species and humans.  In addition, sheep are also an excellent animal model for studying pregnancy.  Sheep are used often to examine how stress, maternal nutrition, and exposure to excess hormones or toxins affect the development of a fetus.

These are just a few examples that display reproductive processes occurring in many large animal species are easily relatable to those same processes which also occur in humans.  I only touched on a few species today, but there are many more animal models that are underused in research and would serve as great models for humans.  In addition, I only discussed some of the ways these animals can be used to study reproduction when in fact they can be used to mimic many other biological processes that occur in humans.  Depending on the subject matter being researched, the use of some animal models is more appropriate than others.  Regardless of cost or time, researchers should always consider which animal model may be the most appropriate for their experiments.  I believe conducting research in a variety of species as opposed to just one or two species will always be more advantageous and will aid us in solving health issues in humans more quickly.

Michelle Bedenbaugh

Animal Research Statistics in Czech Republic, Estonia and Slovenia in 2015

Speaking of Research try to keep on top of the latest statistics coming from governments around the world. This post will look at three countries which have recently published their 2015 statistics.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic reported a 1% rise in the number of animal procedures to 234,366. This was mainly fish (38.5%), mice (31.5%), rats (13.1%) and birds (11.1%), with all remaining species collectively accounting for only about 6% of procedures in 2015.

Procedures on animals in the Czech Republic for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

Procedures on animals in the Czech Republic for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

Dogs, cats and primates together accounted for less than 0.5% of research procedures (980). There was a marked rise in the use of fish (+20%), rats (+11%) and livestock (+45%), with decreases in mice (-9%) and reptiles/amphibians (-73%). Mice, rats, fish and birds accounted together for over 95% of procedures – similar to many other European countries.

animal-research-by-species-in-czech-republic-pie-chart-2015

The most common areas of research were “basic research” (39.7%),  “protection of the natural environment in the interests of the health or welfare of humans beings or animals” (27.0%) and “Translational and applied research” (8.9%).

There has been less animal research in the 2013-15 period than at almost any other time since 2000, though it is unclear from the statistics why this is.

Trend over time in animal experiments in the Czech Republic. Click to Enlarge.

Trend over time in animal experiments in the Czech Republic. Click to Enlarge.

Source of Czech Republic statistics: http://eagri.cz/public/web/file/1497/EPZ15t_resorty.pdf

Estonia

The small Eastern European country of Estonia also provided its 2015 statistics recently, showing a 33% drop, from 6,164 procedures in 2014, to 4162 in 2015.

Procedures on animals in Estonia for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

Procedures on animals in Estonia for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

animal-research-by-species-in-estonia-pie-chart-2015A number of species used in 2014 were not used in 2015. Procedures on cats fell from 126 to 0, and pigs and sheep (previously 10 procedures) also ceased. As is typical in many European countries, rodents, fish and birds accounted for most animal research in Estonia.

Animal research severity statistics from Estonia, 2015

Animal research severity statistics from Estonia, 2015

Most procedures were mild or moderate, with only 8% of procedures (mostly on mice, with 23 on rats) being classified as severe. You can see examples of how procedures might be classified on the example list produced by the EU.

Source of Estonian statistics: http://www.agri.ee/sites/default/files/content/loomakasvatus/loomkatsed-statistika-2015.pdf

Slovenia

Another small European country, Slovenia reported that it conducted 9,110 procedures in 2015, down 21% from 2014.

Procedures on animals in Slovenia for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

Procedures on animals in Slovenia for research in 2015. Click to Enlarge

The main change was the fall in mice by 22%. Mice still account for 94.6% of all animals used in research in Slovenia. Amphibians had not been used in studies in 2014, though the 95 animals may all have been from a single study.

As is the case in many smaller countries (but not all), most of the research was animal testing for regulatory purposes (74%), followed by translational and applied research (12.9%) and basic research (10.6%).

Source of Slovenian statistics: http://www.uvhvvr.gov.si/fileadmin/uvhvvr.gov.si/pageuploads/REGISTRI_IN_OBRAZCI/Zdravje_zivali/Dobrobit_zivali/Statisticni_podatki/UPORABA_ZIVALI_V_POSKUSIH_2015.pdf

Device to help stroke patients to recover moves from primates to people

Every year, 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke, resulting in almost six million deaths and five million people left permanently disabled. It occurs when blood supply to the brain is blocked, or a blood vessel bursts. This prevents oxygen reaching the brain and can cause brain cells to die.

Many people who suffer strokes will subsequently experience spasticity, where the arm and leg muscles cramp or spasm as a result of message between the brain and muscle being blocked. This can cause long periods of contraction in major muscles resulting in bent elbows, pointed feet, arms pressed against the chest, or the distinctive curled hand common to many stroke survivors.

Neuroscientists at Newcastle University have developed a new device which aims to help stroke patients by strengthening a spinal connection known as the reticulospinal tract that can take over some of the function of more major neural pathways connecting the brain to spinal cord when they are damaged following a stroke. This strengthening can alleviate the symptoms of spasticity in the hand and arm of patients, allowing them additional control that can help them regain an important degree of independence in their life.

An article published yesterday in the Journal of Neuroscience (1) reports on the early success of this device, which is about the size of a mobile phone and can deliver an audible click followed by a small electric shock to the arm of patients. Electrical stimulation has previously been used to improve nerve function in other types of injury, but the combination with an auditory signal is new. The study shows that the device is able to strengthen the connections in the reticulospinal tract – the nerve tract in the spine which passes messages from the brain to the limb muscles. After a stroke, the body tends to recover the strength of connections to flexor muscles  (which allow you to close your hand)  more than extensor muscles (which allow you to open your hand). This is why many stroke patients suffer from a curled (semi-closed) hand.

stuart-baker-fits-the-electronic-device-to-a-patient

Stuart Baker attaches the device to a patient

Healthy patients were wired up to receive weak electric shocks to their arm muscle alongside a click sound. The individuals were then sent about their day. By altering the timing of the clicks and shocks they could strengthen or weaken the patients’ reflexes. By wearing the portable electronic device for seven hours, during which time the patients could carry out their daily work, the scientists were able to show that the signal pathways were strengthened in more than half of the patients (15 of 25).

So how did they discover that following a small electric shock with a click could strengthen the nerve pathways between the brain and the arm? Well, it’s a classic case of “Fortune favours the prepared mind”!

Stuart Baker, Professor of Movement Neuroscience at Newcastle University who has led the work said: “We were astonished to find that a small electric shock and the sound of a click had the potential to change the brain’s connections. However, our previous research in primates changed our thinking about how we could activate these pathways, leading to our study in humans.

In 2012 Baker and his colleagues published a paper reporting on their evaluation of a non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stimulating nerve cells in a part of the brainstem called the reticular formation –  where the reticulospinal tract begins – in anaesthetised macaque monkeys, which they undertook as preparation for using TMS in studies in monkeys and human volunteers.   They observed that while the TMS stimulus produced a the expected quick response in the nerve cells, they also produced a puzzling delayed response, which they thought might be triggered not by the changes in the magnetic field but rather to the audible click that the TMS making made when its coil discharged. To test this idea they used a miniature bone vibrator to generate the same kind of click, and found that it stimulated a very similar pattern of nerve activation to that evoked by the sound of the  TMS coil discharge.

At first they viewed this nerve response to the click sound made by the TMS machine as a complication that needed to be accounted for in future studies of the reticular formation, but very quickly realised that the click response could itself be useful as a non-invasive experimental tool, and might even be useful in the clinic.

Baker wanted to know exactly how much the arm-brain connections were controlled by the reticulospinal pathway they were studying, and determine if the timing of a click following the small electric shock made any difference. To assess this, they got primates to do a similar task to that later evaluated in human volunteers. What they found was that by changing the timing between clicks and small electrical shocks, they could change the strength of reflex of the monkeys by as much as 50%. This has given the researchers the confidence to move this into a clinical trial of stroke patients.

primate-in-stroke-research

The macaques monkeys were given food rewards for performing a simple movement based task.

Baker recently published an article on The Conversation entitled “Using monkeys for research is justified – it’s giving us treatments that would be otherwise impossible“. An extract is provided below:

In my own work, we use a small number of macaques to gain this fine-grain understanding. Many pathways for movement control are different between primates such as humans and other animals such as rats. Only a primate model can give us information which is relevant to human diseases.

To learn how these pathways are actually used to control movements, in some studies we first teach the macaque to perform complex tasks with their hands or arm. Getting it right is rewarded with a treat (typically fruit or nuts, but chocolate or strawberry yoghurt also sometimes feature). Once they know what to do, we carry out a surgical implant to allow us to record from the brain using fine electrodes, with tips around the same size as single cells.

All surgery is done in a fully equipped operating theatre, with sophisticated anaesthetics and painkilling medication borrowed from state-of-the-art human care. Once the macaque has recovered, we can record from the brain cells while they do the trained task. An animal that is stressed or in pain would not willingly cooperate with the experiments. The animals seem to enjoy the daily interaction with the lab staff and show no distress.

Our studies are right at the crossroads of basic and clinical sciences. We are trying to understand fundamental brain circuits, and how they change in disease and recovery. Over the past ten years, we’ve shown that a primitive pathway linking brain to spinal cord can carry signals related to hand use. That was a surprise, as until now it was assumed that the primate hand was controlled only by more sophisticated pathways that developed later in evolution.

A clinical trial will now start in Kolkata, India, involving 150 stroke patients. It aims to see whether this new device can improve hand and arm control. The work at Newcastle University has been funded by the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.

chris-blowerChris Blower, 30, suffered a stroke at the age of seven, which paralysed him down onside, slurred his speech and caused him to lose bowel control and move unaided. Though he recovered from these immediate effects, he still suffers slow, limited and difficult movement in his right arm and leg. Here is an extract from his story:

My situation is not unique and many stroke survivors have similar long-term effects to mine. Professor Baker’s work may be able to help people in my position regain some, if not all, motor control of their arm and hand. His research shows that, in stroke, the brains motor pathway to the spinal cord is damaged and that an evolutionarily older signal pathway could be ‘piggybacked’ and used instead. With electrical stimulation, exercise and an audible cue the brain can be taught to use this older pathway instead.

This gives me a lot of hope for stroke survivors. My wrist and fingers pull in, closing my hand into a fist, but with the device Professor Baker is proposing my brain could be re-taught to use my muscles and pull back, opening my hand out. The options presented to me so far, by doctors, have been Botox injections and surgery; Botox in my arm would weaken the muscles closing my hand and allow my fingers to spread, surgery would do the same thing by moving the tendons in my arm. Professor Baker’s electrical stimulations is certainly a more appealing option, to me, as it seems to be a permanent solution that would not require an operation on my arm.

Keith toured the animal house at Newcastle University. He noted after:

The macaque monkey that I observed was calmly carrying out finger manipulation tests while electrodes monitored the cells of her spinal cord.

Although this procedure requires electrodes to be placed into the brain and spine of the animal, Professor Baker explained how the monkey had been practising and learning this test for two years before the monitoring equipment was attached. In this way the testing has become routine before it had even started and the animal was in no pain or distress, even at the sight of a stranger (me).

The animals’ calm, placid temperaments carry over to their living spaces; with lots of windows, natural light and high up spaces the macaques are able to see all around them and along the corridors.

It is great to see Newcastle University being clear about the contribution of animal studies to clincal work. In their press release they noted that “the research published today is a proof of concept in human subjects and comes directly out of the team’s work on primates”.

Baker notes in his recent article,” In my opinion, we should not condemn large numbers of people to disability and dependence, but need to use all of the tools of modern science to discover and innovate the solutions. I am confident that the next 50 years will see wonderful progress in treatments for these terrible disorders and primate research will be central to this effort.

You can read more about animal research at Newcastle University from their website.

Speaking of Research

REFERENCES

  1. K.M. Riashad Foysal, Felipe de Carvalho, Stuart N. Baker. Spike-timing Dependent Plasticity in the Long Latency Stretch Reflex Following Paired Stimulation from a Wearable Electronic Device.  Journal of Neuroscience, 

Reigniting My Fire for Animal Research

lisa-headshotThis guest post is written by Lisa Stanislawczyk, a Veterinary Scientist at a pharmaceutical company. She plays a key role in ensuring the standards of animal care are always improving at her institution. Having been introduced to Speaking of Research through a committee member, Lisa kindly agreed to share her experiences. In this post, Lisa explains her passion for innovation in the field of animal welfare and her experiences, positive and negative, in delivering animal care at numerous institutions in the US. If you would like to write for Speaking of Research please contact us here.

When I started out after college working as an animal care technician at a contract research organization (CRO), I never thought I would want to perform the procedures I saw being done to the animals. I didn’t want to make them uncomfortable or scared. I loved animals and had always wanted to be a vet (like so many others in the field of animal research). While working at the CRO I began to see the care and attention that the technicians took in performing these procedures and how careful they were to make the animals comfortable and at ease. I realized they too cared for the animals as much as I did and we all wanted nothing more than to take the best possible care of these animals.

lisa-veterinary-scientist

Later, after 15 years in the animal research field, I found myself looking for a new role. I was always proud of what I did and left work each day with a sense of accomplishment. However, I was finding it difficult to find work, a common problem for so many in the world we live in today.

I realized that in order to stay in the field and get a good job I was going to have to move outside of my comfort zone, away from everything and everyone familiar. It was scary, but I moved to another part of the country, away from my family and all my friends, to pursue a new job. I was anxious and felt isolated. I came to the harsh realization that not everyone holds themselves or others to the same standards I had been taught, or was accustomed to. This realization almost made me stop doing the work that I had grown to enjoy and get a huge sense of accomplishment from.

I didn’t quite know how to deal with what I perceived as poor animal welfare in my new job. This feeling was not from the technicians doing the work, they were doing the best they knew how with what they were taught. There just seemed to be a lack of knowledge of the regulations which one should have working in a vivarium. It was the management that needed to be held accountable. I spoke with the Chair of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in order get a better understanding of what I felt was just not good research. After our conversation, I still felt there was a lack of accountability from the IACUC Committee. I was at a loss and felt drained and hopeless because there continued to be mistakes and mis-steps which could have been avoided.

I spoke with the veterinarian and was told, “I didn’t understand the field that I was in and I was too soft”. I didn’t believe that. I believed I was there to be an advocate for the animals in my charge. I was told there was not a “magic ball” to know outcomes of certain studies, I knew there were humane endpoints that should be followed. I did my best to make things better. We began a better training program so the people performing the procedures had a better understanding of the Animal Welfare Act and the Guide. We updated procedures and SOPs (standard operating procedures.)

It took its toll. I found myself working long hours to make sure the studies I was to oversee were executed correctly and at the same time educating the personnel working with me. I was exhausted and overworked. So were my technicians. I began to become so emotional about some of the things I was seeing that I would spend what free time I had at home, crying myself to sleep. Just thinking about it now, makes my eyes water. We all began seeing things that we could not bear any longer and more people began to have concerns and fill out whistleblower forms. It was heartbreaking and I just didn’t feel like I could do it any longer. Then the day came, I was laid off. It was a blessing!

Thankfully my negative experience is not common and the facility I worked at was taken over by another company. I have heard that they are still overworked (many of us can sympathize) but that things regarding the animals have definitely improved.

Image of macaques for illustrative purposes.  Image courtesy of: Understanding Animal Research

Image of macaques for illustrative purposes.
Image courtesy of: Understanding Animal Research

I moved back to my family and friends. I needed the moral support from them. Still, I didn’t want to go back to it. I was burnt out. I worked at a home improvement contracting office fielding phone calls and organizing the office. It just wasn’t what I could see myself doing long term. I needed a challenge. I missed the animals. I held guilt for not doing more for them even though I still don’t know what more I could have done at the time.

A previous boss of mine who happened to be a veterinarian reached out to me about a job. Again it was a big pharmaceutical company. I was skeptical but I needed to give it one last chance and it was only a temporary position. It was great to experience the investigators working with the animal care technicians to communicate how the animals did while on study and this empowered everyone to know exactly what was going on with each and every animal on a daily basis. The communication between all the investigators, technicians and veterinary staff truly improved the welfare of the animals. The veterinary staff really cared for the animals and the animal care technicians knew every animal’s quirks, likes, and dislikes. Everyone would make sure the animals that were on study got some extra favorites whether it be food enrichment, human contact, or toys. The people there renewed my faith. I could see the ethical behaviors and integrity of each and every person there. It gave me the desire to stay in the industry. This was what I was accustomed to. I felt like I had a “place” again.

Once the temporary position was over, I moved to another company also working with the veterinary technical staff. There I was allowed to attend ILAM (Institute for Laboratory Animal Management). It is a 2 year program and the information, relationships, and contacts you come away with are immeasurable. I shared my story with others I met there (from all over the world) and I realized we all shared in the desire to deeply care for the animals. We go to work every day to make sure everyone does their best to take care of every need of all the animals in their charge. For some time, I have passively been in the industry, not really wanting to be a part of all the external committees and public outreach opportunities available. After attending ILAM, all that changed. Experiencing the love and desire to improve and do better within our industry and making connections and friendships with people with this common thread has re-ignited my passion for the industry. My company encourages people to innovate and strive for better animal welfare. I am so proud to be a part of a program that has refined techniques performed on multiple species to make it easier for both the animals and the technicians. This is how it should be. This is the industry we are in.  Change is key. Once again I am so proud of what I do and the program I am a part of everyday. I flourish when someone asks me what I do, instead of talking vaguely so they won’t understand or want to hear more about it. I am happy to explain why what we do is so important and necessary.

We make miracles happen and improve the lives of humans and animals every day! This is what we do for a living! This is why people and their pets are living longer, happier lives. This is the reason I am proud to be in animal research. I urge my fellow technicians to speak out, be proud, and get involved explaining what you do and why you do it!

Lisa Stanislawczyk