Tag Archives: HPV

HPV vaccines and cervical cancer – a success in animals is a success for humans

A recent article in the journal Pediatrics reported that vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) resulted in a 64% reduction in infections in girls aged 14-19 (1).

The vaccine, Gardasil, came onto market in June of 2006 and protects again four different HPV types: the two most prevalent high-risk viruses, HPV16 and HPV18, and the two most common causes of benign genital warts, HPV6 and HPV11. Protection against HPV16 and HPV18 is particularly important to human health given that these viruses are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers in women – a cancer which caused 270,000 deaths in 2012. The effectiveness of the HPV vaccine is excellent news in our quest to reduce the deadly toll of cervical cancer, and received widespread coverage in the mainstream media.

Vaccination against HPV prevents cervical cancer. Photo: Art Writ

Vaccination against HPV prevents cervical cancer. Photo: Art Writ

Where did the HPV vaccine come from?

As with most medical discoveries, animal research played a vital role in the development of the HPV vaccine, one that is discussed in depth in a recent issue of FASEB’s “Breakthrough in Bioscience” . From rabbits, to mice, to non-human primates, many species were involved in uncovering the link from HPV-cervical cancer and in developing the first effective vaccine.

Early observiations

In the early 1930s, Richard Shope isolated viral particles from wart-like tumors (papillomas) on the Eastern cottontail rabbit. These particles were then applied to non-infected rabbits, and within six to 12 days these rabbits, too, had developed warts. Shope also observed that the warts of the infected rabbits often progressed to cancer after about four months. This was the first animal model showing the progression from viral infection to cancer.

Papillomaviruses are highly species specific. That is, a rabbit papillomavirus will only replicate in rabbits, and a human papillomavirus will only infect humans. As such, an animal model that would effectively grow human papillomavirus was necessary to begin to understand the virus better. Immunocompromised mice (mice that lack a functional immune system) proved to be an effective model in which to grow human papillomaviruses. This breakthrough provided researchers the means understand the virus’s lifecycle as well as the host’s immune response paving the way towards the development of the HPV vaccine.

 Wild rabbit with tumors caused by papillomavirus infection

Wild rabbit with tumors caused by papillomavirus infection

While much was being learned about the biology of papillomaviruses through  animal studies, the demonstration by Harald zur Hausen and colleagues at the University of Freiburg that HPV was present in the majority of cases of cervical cancer suggested that vaccination may provide a means to prevent this deadly disease.

The path to a vaccine against cervical cancer

It wasn’t until the early 1990s that scientists were able to determine what the components of a vaccine should be. Because HPV is a DNA virus, it would have been unsafe to deliver the DNA since it alone is enough to cause cancer. Researchers needed an alternative, and they found that in the discovery of virus-like particles (VLPs), which are multiple copies of the main structural protein of HPV. Injection of bovine papillomavirus capsid protein L1, a protein that forms the outer shell of the virus, was found to induce a strong immune response in rabbits, and that the rabbits produced antibodies that bound strongly to bovine papillomavirus in vitro.  Researchers now needed to determine if delivering the VLPs were safe and effective protecting against HPV.

Because of the species-specificity of the papilloma viruses, animal efficacy trials had to be done with the animal equivalent of the vaccine. Investigators relied upon the biological effects of nonhuman papillomaviruses in nonhuman models to form the groundwork for HPV studies. The  bovine VLP based vaccine was found to  protect against the virus in cattle, and subsequent species-specific versions of the VLP vaccines were tested in rabbits and dogs. The vaccinated animals produced high levels of antibodies and the vaccines were at least 90 percent effective at preventing warts following exposure to papillomavirus. Next, VLPs of human papillomaviruses were tested in nonhuman primates to see if they could induce an immune response, and they did.

Clinical trials with human volunteers showed that the HPV VLP vaccines induced high levels of antibodies against HPV. Women vaccinated in the trials were also protected from persistent HPV infection and precancerous cervical changes. Because of the success in the human trials, Gardasil, the first vaccine against HPV, was approved by the FDA in 2006. In 2015, FDA approved a new version of the vaccine that is effective against nine types of HPV.

The value of vaccines…the need for animal research

The widespread coverage of the study showing the effectiveness of vaccination against HPV in preventing cervical cancer is a sign of how people appreciate  the importance of vaccination to protect against disease, despite ongoing misinformation campaigns  by misguided – and sometimes sadly high-profile – anti-vaccine activists.

Another sign of the importance people place on vaccines play protecting human health from disease comes from the UK, where a petition to the UK Parliament  asking the Government to “Give the Meningitis B vaccine to ALL children, not just newborn babies” has become the most popular UK Government e-petition to date. The UK was the first country to introduce a vaccination programme – with the Bexsero vaccine –  in babies against Meningitis B, and MPs and the government will need to weigh the benefits of increasing protection against the cost of the vaccine carefully.

Whatever their decision, it is good to note that the public recognize the critical role vaccines play in protecting health. They should also remember the critical role played by animal research in vaccine development, indeed, in an earlier post on this blog we discussed the innovative “reverse immunology” approach in mice that led to the development of Bexsero.

While we rightly celebrate the benefits of vaccination, and advocate for vaccines to be made available to all who need them, we should also remember where those vaccines come from, and ensure that the animal research that is so vital to their development continues.

Anne Deschamps

  1. Lauri E. Markowitz, Gui Liu, Susan Hariri, Martin Steinau, Eileen F. Dunne, Elizabeth R. Unger “Prevalence of HPV After Introduction of the Vaccination Program in the United States” Pediatrics, Published Online 19 February 2016. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/02/19/peds.2015-1968

From the Nobel Prize to the clinic through animal research

The winners of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2008 have been announced today, and this year the prize has been split between three scientists whose epidemiological work lead to the identification of viruses responsible for two deadly diseases.  Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi were given the award for their discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while Harald zur Hausen was recognized for his discovery that the human papillomavirus (HPV) causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer.  This years awards will get a lot of people talking, the decision not to award a share in the Nobel Prize to Robert Gallo cannot fail to be controversial, since he played an important role in the discovery of HIV and provided the bulk of the early evidence showing that it caused AIDS. Aside from that I think we can look forward to some interesting debates as every HIV/AIDS denialist and and anti-vaccine crank out there jumps on the Nobel Prize committee’s decision.  Amusing as such debates can be  is it would be a shame if they distracted from the achievements of Montagnier, Barré-Sinoussi and zur Hausen, because make no mistake about it their discoveries were of great importance to modern medicine, leading to effective tests and treatments for HIV and more recently vaccines against HPV.  We offer our heartfelt congratulations to each of them!

At this point you’re probably wondering what any of this has to do with animal research?  This is one of those years when the discoveries for which the Nobel Prize was awarded did not depend directly on animal research, but we do not have to look far to see where animal research played its part. Identifying the cause of a disease is just the start, you next have to work out how to prevent or cure it. Where HIV is concerned much has been written about the role of animal research in developing antiviral drugs and vaccines, and rather than going into that now I’ll direct you to animalresearch.info which is an excellent introduction to the topic. The role of animal research in the development of HPV vaccines is less well known, so that’s what I’d like to discuss here.

Once it had been established that HPV was the cause of most cases of cervical cancer work began on developing vaccines to protect against the virus.  As with any vaccine there was a need to ensure that the vaccine was both safe and capable of stimulation the immune system to protect against the virus, and animal models of HPV infection were sought.  While HPV is specific to humans other papillomaviruses infect species such as cattle, rabbits and dogs, and these provided a good model for the study of papillomavirus vaccines.  Early work on the vaccines proved discouraging. Immunization with whole papillomavirus protected against infection but was simply too dangerous to try in humans since there was a risk that the virus used to immunize could itself cause cancer, it was after all the same virus. This study did however show that a vaccine was possible. The next approach tried was to immunize animals using fragments of virus protein, a common method in vaccine design, but this failed to provide any significant protection (1).  It seemed that the whole virus was required to elicit a strong immune response. The breakthrough came from scientists who were studying the bovine papillomavirus capsid protein L1, a protein that forms the outer shell of the virus.  They found that when the L1 protein was expressed in vitro it could self-assemble to form a virus-like particle (VLP), which when injected into rabbits stimulated the immune system to produce antibodies antibodies that bound strongly to bovine papillomavirus (2).
The discovery that the bovine papillomavirus VLP could stimulate antibody production was good news, but the presence of such antibodies does not necessarily confer protection against the virus, so they next examined if bovine papillomavirus VLPs could protect cattle against bovine papillomavirus, and if VLPs made from the papillomavirus specific to their species could  protect dogs and rabbits against the canine and rabbit papillomavirus’s.  The animals were protected, and no adverse effects were noted (1), a success that lead directly to the development of VLP vaccines against HPV.  So far two HPV vaccines have been approved for clinical use, Merck’s Gardasil and GlaxoSmithKline’s Cervarix, and many states are now considering if they should make immunization against HPV part of their vaccination schedule.  Hopefully, if their price tag does not prove too high, these vaccines will go on to prevent many cervical cancer deaths.

So as usual medical progress is made by scientists working in a variety of disciplines, each playing their part to make breakthroughs possible.

1) Schiller J.T. and Lowy D.R. “Papillomavirus-like particles and HPV vaccine development.” Seminars in Cancer Biology, Volume 7, pages 373-382 (1996) PubMed: 9284529.
2) Kirnbauer R. et al. “Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., Volume 89(24), pages12180-4 (1992) PubMed: 1334560.

New DVD shows how biomedical research can save your pet!

Americans for Medical Progress, whom Speaking of Research works side by side with, have just released a fantastic new DVD which looks at the impact of animal research on veterinary medicine.

The DVD follows four veterinarians; Marilyn Brown, Arnold Goldman, Lisa Portnoy and John Young, who lent their thoughts, hearts and voices in order to explore the humane nature and value of animal-based research to animal and human medicine. The DVD also follows the dramatic stories of some animals whose lives have been saved by treatments developed through biomedical research.

A clip from the DVD can be seen below:

Another story on the DVD is that of Duke, the research beagle who contributed to the development of the HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine through his part in trials for the COPV (Canine Oral Papillomavirus) Vaccine. The HPV vaccine was given FDA approval last year and will soon be available to help many people around the world. Learn more about veterinary medicine.

The DVD is free of charge so order one now.